Mastering File Operations in Python

Neha Saini
3 min readMay 22, 2023

Hey there! Do you want to learn file operations in Python? Then you are in the right place. As a Python enthusiast, I am thrilled to share with you the power and simplicity of handling files using this versatile programming language. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced coder, mastering file operations in Python is an essential skill that will enable you to read, write, and manipulate data efficiently.

So, grab a cup of your favorite beverage, sit back, and let’s embark on this exciting journey together!

Reading Files:

Imagine you have a treasure trove of data tucked away in a text file, waiting to be explored. With Python, reading files is as easy as pie. Let’s say you have a file named “data.txt.” Here’s how you can read its contents:

# Opening the file in read mode
with open("data.txt", "r") as file:
# Reading the entire file
contents =

In this example, we use the open() function to open the file in read mode ("r"). The with statement ensures that the file is properly closed after we're done reading its contents. The read() method reads the entire file and stores its contents in the contents variable. Finally, we print the contents to the console.

Writing to Files:

Now, what if you want to create a file from scratch or modify an existing one? Python has you covered! Let’s create a new file named “new_data.txt” and write some data to it:

# Opening the file in write mode
with open("new_data.txt", "w") as file:
# Writing data to the file
file.write("Hello, world!")

In this snippet, we open the file “new_data.txt” in write mode (“w”). This mode allows us to overwrite any existing content or create a new file if it doesn’t exist. Using the write() method, we add the text "Hello, world!" to the file.

Appending to Files:

Appending data to an existing file without overwriting its contents is also straightforward in Python. Let’s add a new line to our “new_data.txt” file:

# Opening the file in append mode
with open("new_data.txt", "a") as file:
# Appending data to the file
file.write("\nI'm learning Python!")

By using the “a” mode instead of “w” in the open() function, we ensure that the file is opened in append mode. This mode allows us to add new content to the end of the file without removing existing data. We use the write() method again, this time appending the text "\nI'm learning Python!" as a new line.

Closing Files:

Remember how we used the with statement? It takes care of closing the file for us automatically. However, if you ever need to close a file manually, you can use the close() method:

file = open("data.txt", "r")
# Perform file operations...

By closing the file, you ensure that system resources are released and any changes made are saved.

You have just learned file operations in Python. You can now confidently read, write, and manipulate files with ease. We covered reading files, writing to files, and appending data to existing files, all while maintaining a personal touch. Remember, file operations are not limited to text files. Python provides various libraries and modules for working with different file formats, such as CSV, JSON, Excel, and more.



Neha Saini

A Software Programmer with more than a decade of experience in the industry, passion for writing and curious mind .