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“J.R.R. TOLKIEN’S CONSTRUCTION OF MULTIPLE MASCULINITIES IN THE LORD OF THE RINGS”

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From state feminism to market feminism?

Authors: Johanna Kantola, Judith Squires

Publicated on April 13, 2012 Research Article

Abstract

This article argues that the concept of ‘state feminism’ no longer adequately captures the complexity of emerging feminist engagements with new forms of governance. It suggests that ‘market feminism’ offers a new conceptual framework from which feminist engagements with the state can be analysed and evaluated, and the changes within state feminism can be understood. The article documents the growing feminist embrace of the logic of the market, which manifests itself in changed practices and priorities. The article gives examples of ‘market feminism’ and argues that the move from state feminism to market feminism impacts on both the political practices and policy priorities of women’s policy agencies.

Keywords state feminism, market feminism, neoliberalism, governance, women’s policy agencies

Article taken from: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0192512111432513

New technologies for teaching and learning: Challenges for higher learning institutions in developing countries

Authors: A. S. Sife, E.T. Lwoga and C. Sanga. Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania

Year of publication: 2007

Abstract

The application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) is already changing the organization and delivery of higher education. The pedagogical and socio-economic forces that have driven the higher learning institutions to adopt and incorporate ICTs in teaching and learning include greater information access; greater communication; synchronous and asynchronous learning; increased cooperation and collaboration, cost-effectiveness and pedagogical improvement. However, ICTs have not permeated to a great extent in many higher learning institutions in most developing countries due to many socio-economic and technological circumstances. This paper discusses new learning and training technologies considering their pedagogical, cost and technical implications. It also discusses challenges for integrating these technologies in higher learning institutions with examples from Tanzania, and giving best practice approaches for addressing each of the challenges.

Keywords: information and communication technology, e-learning, teaching and learning technologies, higher learning institutions, developing countries

Article taken from: file:///C:/Users/Fer/Downloads/article_42360.pdf

Community Radio and Social Activism in Chile 1990–2007: Challenges for Grass Roots Voices During the Transition to Democracy

Author: Rosalind Bresnahan

Published online: 05 Dec 2007

Abstract

After a mass democratic movement ended the 17 year Pinochet dictatorship in Chile in 1990, social activists saw community radio as an ideal medium for participatory democracy and for articulating grass roots needs and demands. However, the initial upsurge of grass roots radio activism was squelched by government delay in enacting enabling legislation. The provisions of the law that was eventually approved made the license application process onerous for grass roots organizations. Community radio was also adversely affected by the overall decline in grass roots social activism which reflected both widespread disillusionment with the government’s limited reform agenda and deliberate government policies to bring about social demobilization. As a result, although community radio has become well established, with over 300 legal stations plus others operating without licenses, it has not fully realized its potential as a social activist and democratic medium.

Article taken from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10955040701583320?journalCode=hjrs19

“J.R.R. TOLKIEN’S CONSTRUCTION OF MULTIPLE MASCULINITIES IN THE LORD OF THE RINGS”

Author: Beatriz Domínguez Ruiz, Universidad de Granada

Email: beatrix@correo.ugr.es

Date of publication: 10 September 2015

Date of reception: 23 July 2015

Date of acceptance: 10 September 2015

Abstract

The lord of the rings is one of the most widely acclaimed fantasy novels in history and since it was first published in the fifties, the analysis of the work from the perspective of gender has mainly focused on its female characters. In this article, written on the 60th anniversary of the first publication of the third and last volume, The Return of the king, my aim is to focus rather on the most relevant male characters and what types of masculinities they perform, offering thus a new re-reading of the text from the point of view of masculinities

Keywords: Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, gender, dominant hegemonic masculinity, alternative masculinities, obsolete masculinities

Article taken from: http://repositorio.ual.es:8080/bitstream/handle/10835/4833/BEATRIZDOMINGUEZRUIZ.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Sobre la selección

Seleccionamos este artículo porque nos pareció interesante leer entre líneas las grandes novelas de alcance masivo que han interpelado a los jóvenes y adultos en los últimos tiempos. Además creemos que aún hoy, tanto los libros como la película siguen teniendo un alto grado de vigencia. Entendemos que estas producciones literarias están cargadas de construcciones sociales que resulta importante desentramar. Y que también tienen el poder de condicionarnos en nuestras formas de ser y estar en el mundo. Por eso nos resulto interesante poder ver un análisis desde una perspectiva de género en esta producción.

Resúmenes en español e inglés

LA CONSTRUCCIÓN DE MÚLTIPLES MASCULINIDADES en “El Señor de los Anillos” DE JRR TOLKIEN

Beatriz Domínguez Ruiz

Resumen Español

El señor de los anillos es una de las novelas de fantasía más ampliamente aclamados en la historia, y desde su primera publicación en los años cincuenta, el análisis del trabajo de perspectiva de género se ha centrado principalmente en sus personajes femeninos. En este artículo el objetivo de la autora es centrarse más bien en los personajes masculinos más relevantes y lo tipos de masculinidades que se construyen en la trama, ofreciendo así una nueva relectura del texto.

Las masculinidades de la comunidad del anillo (en total 9) se construyen en función de los otros integrantes a través de lo que hacen, dicen y manifiestan. En el desarrollo del texto ella distingue los personajes y los caracteriza según dos variables de masculinidades:

El primer patrón, basada en una masculinidad dominante hegemónica, está representada en el mundo de Tolkien por Théoden, Éomer, Boromir y Denethor, cuya actuación se basa en lo que puede ser definida como hipermasculinidad. El segundo patrón parece haber asimilado algunas actitudes y prácticas que han sido tradicionalmente consideradas femeninas, y está representada por Aragorn, Faramir, Gandalf, Frodo y Sam. En el desarrollo del articulo la autora se encarga de analizar y repasar los personajes desde el rol que cumplen en la historia (relatando hechos claves de la misma, como participación en batallas) y los símbolos que lo acompañan durante la misma.

Las muertes de Théoden, Denethor y Boromir marcan el fin de la era de hiper-masculinidad y algunos de los valores en los que se basa. La Guerra del Anillo significa el fin de la Tercera Edad y el comienzo de la Cuarta Edad, caracterizada por el dominio de los Hombres, así con el fin de la hiper-masculinidad, no sólo podemos ver el final de un período histórico en la Tierra Media, sino también el final de algunas de las características que se encuentran como dominantes en la masculinidad hegemónica.

¿Significa esto que hay una “crisis de masculinidad” en El Señor de los Anillos? Para comenzar, utilizando este término, estaríamos afirmando que sólo hay un tipo de masculinidad. Así que en vez de una “crisis”, más bien propone la hipótesis de que la Tercera Edad significa el fin de un tipo dominante de hegemonia de la hiper-masculinidad en favor de patrones más evolucionados. En este sentido los patrones de masculinidad retratados por personajes como Aragorn, Faramir, Gandalf, Sam y Frodo podrían estar socialmente situados en la Tierra Media dentro del patrón de “masculinidades alternativas,” que no se ajusta a los patrones tradicionales.

El tipo de masculinidad de estos personajes se caracteriza por dos aspectos relevantes: su voluntad de preservar la vida y sus actitudes pacíficas.

Según la autora Tolkien parece estar a favor de la representación de un tipo de masculinidad que se basa más bien en la simplicidad, la lealtad, la amistad y la misericordia; que se basa en la vida en lugar de muerte, en la paz y no la guerra. Los caracteres que representan este patrón son heroicos, aunque con defectos, pero son respetuosos, honestos y cooperativos y representan por lo tanto un tipo diferente de heroísmo. Es por esto que la Cuarta Edad se encuentra en las manos de personajes que abarcan ambos rasgos (femeninos y masculinos) a pesar del hecho de que los hombres todavía mantienen socialmente el poder en la Tierra Media. Mediante la introducción de importantes rasgos femeninos en personajes masculinos, Tolkien introduce tipos de masculinidades que no son puramente dominantes, ofreciendo modelos que se pueden ver como alternativas y no hegemónicas.

Resumen Inglés

The lord of the rings is one of the most widely acclaimed fantasy novels in history and since it was first published in the fifties, the analysis of the work from the perspective of gender has mainly focused on its female characters. In this article, written on the 60th anniversary of the first publication of the third and last volume, The Return of the king, the aim of the author is to focus rather on the most relevant male characters and what types of masculinities they perform, offering thus a new re-reading of the text from the point of view of masculinities.

Within the multiple masculinities of Middle-earth, there are two that stand out from the rest and seem to compromise the main characters. Whereas the first pattern, undoubtedly based on a traditional dominant hegemonic masculinity, is represented in Tolkien’s world by Théoden, Éomer, Boromir and Denethor, whose performance is based on what can be defined as hypermasculinity the second pattern seems to have assimilated some attitudes and practices that have been traditionally considered feminine, and is represented by Aragorn, Faramir, Gandalf, Frodo and Sam.

All these characters’ behaviour clearly illustrates the substantial differences among them throughout the plot. On the one hand, we have the society of Rohan, where Théoden is King and Éomer is his heir (and foster son) and which is a reconstruction, according to Shippey, of the literary Anglo-Saxon world found in texts like Beowulf, The Battle of Maldon (2001). Being brought up in this atmosphere, Éomer is undoubtedly a wonderful representative of the Rohirrim’s masculinity, which is ultimately based on their military prowess, physical strength and loyalty on their lord.

The deaths of Théoden, Denethor and Boromir thus mark the end of the era of hypermasculinity and some of the values it is based on. The War of the Ring means the end of the Third Age and the beginning of the Fourth Age, characterized by the Dominion of Men, so with the end of hypermasculinity, not only can we see the end of a historical period in Middle-earth, but also the end of some of the characteristics that are usually found in a

dominant hegemonic masculinity This second pattern I would like to explore now can be socially situated in Middle-earth within the pattern of “alternative masculinities,”6 for it does not conform to traditional patterns. The type of masculinity that characters like Aragorn, Faramir, Gandalf, Sam and Frodo are endowed with is characterized by placing itself far from the hegemonic model.

Although the Fellowship of the Ring starts from Rivendell to achieve Frodo’s quest, which is to destroy the Ring, we also witness Aragorn’s own quest. He never loses his role as protector of the hobbits to fulfil own tasks. Gandalf represents a father-figure for the hobbits and he is not only mere friend

– he protects them and is like a counsellor or guide for them. He adopts some paternal attitudes towards them: he is caring and protective, he worries about them and does not hesitate to reprimand them, as in the case of Pippin. There are also other characters that share these life-preserving attitudes: the hobbits, above all in the case of Sam and Frodo.

Their interaction with other races and their learning and maturity process will determine

the patterns of masculinity they will perform at the end of the book. Tolkien introduces types of masculinities that are not purely dominant, offering models that can be seen as alternative or non-hegemonic. Sixty years after its publication, the foregoing analysis has tried to show that some male characters perfectly

embody masculine and feminine traits at the end of the Third Age and beginning of the

Fourth Age, marked by the disappearance of Elves from Middle-earth and the start of the

Dominion of Men, offering thus a richer and deeper understanding of The Lord of the Rings.

Ateneo

Presentation of the paper “J.R.R. TOLKIEN’S CONSTRUCTION OF MULTIPLE MASCULINITIES IN THE LORD OF THE RINGS”

In the first part, we are show the video of the movie of the lord of the rings

In the second part of this ateneo, we talk about the paper.

Lucas

Now We are going to watch the opening scene of the movie. In this part of the movie we Will see the history of the rings and the begining of the war to control the middle earth.

The Lord of the Rings is one of the most widely acclaimed fantasy novels in history and since it was first published in the fifties the analysis of the work from the perspective of gender has mainly focused on its female characters.

Fernanda

The aim of this article, written on the 60th anniversary of the first publication of lord of ring’s last volume, The Return of the King, is to focus on the most relevant male characters and what types of masculinities they perform, offering a new perspective of the text from the point of view of masculinities.

Martín

The masculinities of the ring community (in total 9) are built in the function of the other members actions, sayings , and manifestations. In the development of the text the author distinguishes characters and their qualities from the role they play in history (relating key facts of the same, as participation in battles) and the symbols that accompany it during the same.

Lourdes

The first pattern, based on a dominant hegemonic masculinity, is represented in the world of Tolkien by Théoden, Éomer, Boromir and Denethor, whose performance is based on what can be defined as hypermasculinity. The second pattern seems to have assimilated some attitudes and practices that have traditionally been considered female, and are represented by Aragorn, Faramir, Gandalf, Frodo and Sam. The deaths of Théoden, Denethor and Boromir mark the end of the age of hyper-masculinity and some of the values on which it is based

Lucas

Does this mean that there is a crisis of masculinity in The Lord of the Rings?

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