Refuge and Remembrance

Commemorating the Battle of Attu and valor in the Aleutians

Remnants of World War II on Attu Island, at the far west end of the Aleutian chain. L. Hupp/USFWS
Joseph Sasser, 50th Combat Engineers. Courtesy of National Park Service.

War at the End of the World

What were you doing when you were 20? Seventy five years ago, in May, 1943, Joseph Sasser was wading, gun in hand, onto a beach on remote Attu, the westernmost island in Alaska’s thousand mile chain of Aleutian Islands. Mr. Sasser took part in the only World War II land battle fought on North American soil, to wrest Attu back from Japanese occupying forces.

On May 11, 1942 at approximately 3:30 pm, US soldiers landed on this beach at Massacre Bay, Attu. The southern force of a multi-pronged attack, they arrived by ship to take back the island from Japanese military occupation. L. Hupp/USFWS

Honoring Sacrifice

For Mr. Sasser, the war is almost a lifetime ago, but is most certainly not forgotten. He and several fellow veterans are being honored in Anchorage, Alaska May 17–19, 2018 as part of a year-long series of activities by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and partners commemorating the Battle of Attu and World War II in the Aleutians, and the sacrifices of the Alaska Native Unangax̂ people whose lives and lands were forever altered by the war.


From Refuge to Battlefield…

Attu Island and another Aleutian island, Kiska, share a unique history. These islands, both part of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, were refuge lands dedicated to wildlife before being captured by enemy forces during the war.

The Aleutian cackling goose (Branta hutchinsii leucopareia) has made one of the most astounding recoveries in the history of wildlife management. It was one of the first animals listed under the Endangered Species Act, and recovered when invasive foxes were removed from important nesting grounds, including Attu. Credit: Ronan Dugan/USFWS.

They withstood intense conflict when retaken by American forces during the war, and were returned to peaceful wildlife havens after the war.

Key battlefield areas of Attu and Kiska, along with a portion of Atka Island, are part of Valor in the Pacific National Monument established by President George W. Bush in 2008 to recognize the sacrifice of soldiers and civilians affected by the Aleutian Campaign.

Intact battlefields, memorials, and artifacts of war endure in these cold and remote locations, 3 of 9 sites protected as part of the Valor in the Pacific National Monument (AK, HI, CA). From left to right: an artillery monument on Attu Island, Japanese guns on Kiska Island, and a B-24D Liberator bomber on Atka Island. Credit: L. Hupp/USFWS (Attu and Kiska) and courtesy of Sven Haakanson (Atka).

People of the Sea: A Return to Attu

But these lands hold memories far older than the war or the refuge system. Along with bird songs, rushing streams, and crashing waves, on Attu one can also hear echoes of the People of the Sea, the Unangax̂, who occupied these lands for some 3000 years.

Weaving an Attu bottle basket with lid, 1941. ASL-MS253–01–03 Alaska State Library, J. Malcolm Greany Photo Collection.

Unangax̂ (later dubbed “Aleut” by Russian explorers) lived throughout the Aleutians, hunting sea mammals, fishing, harvesting seabirds, waterfowl, and other wildlife as they developed a rich maritime culture. Despite disease, violence, and other difficulties associated with both the Russian and American exploration and fur harvest periods, a small thriving Unangax̂ community remained on Attu until June, 1942, when Japanese invaders forever changed the villagers’ lives.

Following the war, survivors could not return home to resettle Attu. In 2017, 11 descendants of Attu Village returned to the island aboard the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Research Vessel Tiglax, as part of the 75th anniversary commemoration. It was their first visit to the place their parents and grandparents called home. The descendants placed a memorial to their lost ancestors and gathered grass to craft baskets in the style for which Attu was famed.

Attu Village descendants gather grass from the island to weave into traditional baskets, 75 years after their ancestors were captured by the Japanese and taken from Attu to an internment camp. Credit: Zoë Sobel/KUCB.

Remembering “The Forgotten War”

37mm Antitank Gun Crew. Courtesy of U.S. Navy Archives.

The Aleutian Campaign, sometimes called “The Forgotten War,” forever marks a chapter in the world’s history, in a national wildlife refuge’s history, and in the lives and legacies of people who lived and died on a remote and rugged island that rises out of fog as far west as one can journey in North America. American forces suffered more than 3000 casualties on Attu, including 549 dead. Nearly 2400 Japanese soldiers died; only 28 survived the Battle of Attu. Nearly half of the Unangax̂ residents of Attu, taken as prisoners to Japan, died during their captivity.

The people who lived on the island, the soldiers on both sides who fought there, and the descendants of all of these citizens and warriors will forever bear marks of battle. Today, while Attu still bears the scars of battle, it also shows the soothing grace of reconciliation and healing. So too the people. This month, Joseph Sasser, no longer carrying that rifle, will join other veterans, Attu descendants, and Japanese soldiers’ descendants, coming together in peace to honor the valor of all involved.

Healing and recovery (from left to right): a cross marks the site of the Attu village church (credit: Zoë Sobel/KUCB); a peace memorial stands at the top of Engineer Hill, where the Battle of Attu ended on May 29th, 1943 (credit: L. Hupp/USFWS); Attu’s endemic Evermann’s Rock Ptarmigan is a subspecies of management concern and biologists are working to restore their population (credit: Steve Ebbert/USFWS)

Explore More:

Join us for Commemoration Events in Anchorage, Alaska on May 17–19, 2018. See the full schedule of events and more at www.attu75.org
UPDATE May 25: view
photos from the commemoration events.

Learn about the history of the “The Forgotten War” on Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge with an interactive Story Map.

Watch a short video about the Battle and the 2017 return to Attu with 11 Unangax descendants.

Take a virtual photo tour of Attu, Kiska, and Atka: part of the Valor of the Pacific National Monument.

Explore 360 virtual reality videos of Attu and Kiska: 
Attu Island in 360
KTUU Alaska Channel 2 News Virtual Reality Story: 
Hidden caves & sunken ships: Alaska’s living museums of World War II

Read more about Aleut evacuation and internment during World War II, including the formal apology delivered from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service during a 2017 commemoration.


By Steve Delehanty, Manager of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge.

In Alaska we are shared stewards of world renowned natural resources and our nation’s last true wild places. Our hope is that each generation has the opportunity to live with, live from, discover and enjoy the wildness of this awe-inspiring land and the people who love and depend on it.

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