Esoteric and Exoteric: Key Concept of Philosophical Education In Indonesia
The Brief History of Ki Hajar Dewantara In Education Perspective,
Education of Indonesia that’s very different, but background of education Ki Hajar is Western, he avoid the Western method, because the character regering, tucht, orde. That character is dangerous for child, according him, which model of them child can feel suppressed. Natural character will be destroyed. So, he offering of teaching method, educational esoteric and exoteric, a combination body-mind and soul, to creating a good personality and “bathini” (esoteric). According Ki Hajar, teaching is effort to independence of exoteric aspect of human being (life of existence), freedom for dullness. On the other hand, education is effort independence esoteric aspect of human being (essence of soul)
First concept is activity of teaching, the action of process transfer of knowledge in educational sector informative and formative.
Informative teaching is activity to build intellectual autonomy with intentionally. And teaching goal is, person freedom for dullness. Meanwhile, formative is activity to building the existential autonomy, that’s to say, building awareness toward human right. In practically, exoteric independences directly to living orientation, get the reverences and acknowledgement. To existence life, the meaning is we have life and need friend and social environment. In other hand, esoteric independences have the meaning with spirit and soul, something inside. Education establish person who want to be subject reality, in the sense of the greatest possible extent. He have intellectual autonomy, existential autonomy and social autonomy as a part of society. A lot of that divide into personal identity and identity.