biological psychology Deel
biological psychology Deel

By Dr. Gary L. Deel, Ph.D., J.D.
Faculty Director, Dr. Wallace E. Boston School of Business, American Public University

APU’s psychology program offers online bachelor’s and master’s degrees that introduce students to the different schools of thought in psychological research. These degrees are designed to prepare them for different fields, including clinical work and mental health and wellness services.

Last summer, I wrote a series of articles about the argument made by some psychological and philosophical experts that free will is an illusion; that what appears to us as free agency is really just an endless cascade of cause and…

correlation causation Deel
correlation causation Deel

By Dr. Gary L. Deel
Faculty Director, Wallace E. Boston School of Business, American Public University

What if I told you that every time event “A” occurs, event “B” follows? Would you be tempted to think that A causes B?

If so, you’d be forgiven for such an assumption. After all, this way of thinking makes good sense temporally. A cause must obviously precede an effect, so if “A” always happens before “B,” then it’s natural to expect that “A” causes “B.”

But again, this is just an assumption. And it is often an erroneous one because without knowing the…

citizen’s arrest part 7 Deel Russo
citizen’s arrest part 7 Deel Russo

By Dr. Gary L. Deel, Faculty Director, Wallace E. Boston School of Business, American Public University, and Dr. Chuck Russo, Program Director, Criminal Justice

This is the seventh and final article in this series on the particulars of citizen’s arrests, including when, why and how these arrests are appropriately applied. Start with the first article in this series. This article series is not intended as legal advice. Readers should consult a licensed attorney with any specific questions or concerns on the subject matter.

In the previous article, we addressed what happens in a citizen’s arrest after law enforcement arrives and…

citizen’s arrest part 6 Deel Russo
citizen’s arrest part 6 Deel Russo

By Dr. Gary L. Deel, Faculty Director, Wallace E. Boston School of Business, American Public University, and Dr. Chuck Russo, Program Director, Criminal Justice

This is the sixth article in a series on the particulars of citizen’s arrests, including when, why and how these arrests are appropriately applied. Start with the first article in this series. This article series is not intended as legal advice. Readers should consult a licensed attorney with any specific questions or concerns on the subject matter.

In the previous article, we examined citizen’s arrest concerns such as whether and how to conduct protective weapons pat-downs…

citizen’s arrest part 5 Deel Russo
citizen’s arrest part 5 Deel Russo

By Dr. Gary L. Deel, Faculty Director, Wallace E. Boston School of Business, American Public University, and Dr. Chuck Russo, Program Director, Criminal Justice

This is the fifth article in a series on the particulars of citizen’s arrests, including when, why and how these arrests are appropriately applied. Start with the first article in this series. This article series is not intended as legal advice. Readers should consult a licensed attorney with any specific questions or concerns on the subject matter.

In the previous article, we looked at nuances of the citizen’s arrest process, including what happens after the person…

citizen’s arrest part 4 Deel Russo
citizen’s arrest part 4 Deel Russo

By Dr. Gary L. Deel, Faculty Director, Wallace E. Boston School of Business, American Public University, and Dr. Chuck Russo, Program Director, Criminal Justice

This is the fourth article in a series on the particulars of citizen’s arrests, including when, why and how these arrests are appropriately applied. Start with the first article in this series. This article series is not intended as legal advice. Readers should consult a licensed attorney with any specific questions or concerns on the subject matter.

In the previous article, we examined important questions, such as how to handle a citizen’s arrest in a team…

citizen’s arrest part 3 Deel Russo
citizen’s arrest part 3 Deel Russo

By Dr. Gary L. Deel, Faculty Director, Wallace E. Boston School of Business, American Public University, and Dr. Chuck Russo, Program Director, Criminal Justice

This is the third article in a series on the particulars of citizen’s arrests, including when, why and how these arrests are appropriately applied. Start with the first article in this series. This article series is not intended as legal advice. Readers should consult a licensed attorney with any specific questions or concerns on the subject matter.

In the previous article, we looked at particulars surrounding a citizen’s arrest, such as what you should say and…

citizen’s arrest part 2 Deel Russo
citizen’s arrest part 2 Deel Russo

By Dr. Gary L. Deel, Faculty Director, Wallace E. Boston School of Business, American Public University, and Dr. Chuck Russo, Program Director, Criminal Justice

This is the second article in a series on the particulars of citizen’s arrests, including when, why and how these arrests are appropriately applied. Start with the first article in this series. This article series is not intended as legal advice. Readers should consult a licensed attorney with any specific questions or concerns on the subject matter.

In the previous article of this series, we defined the citizen’s arrest and discussed when it might be used…

citizen’s arrest part 1 Deel Russo
citizen’s arrest part 1 Deel Russo

By Dr. Gary L. Deel, Faculty Director, Wallace E. Boston School of Business, American Public University, and Dr. Chuck Russo, Program Director, Criminal Justice

This is the first article in a series on the particulars of citizen’s arrests, including when, why and how these arrests are appropriately applied. This article series is not intended as legal advice. Readers should consult a licensed attorney with any specific questions or concerns on the subject matter.

American Public University offers academic programs in Legal Studies and Criminal Justice that cover important legal issues like these in greater depth. …

presbycusis age-related hearing loss Deel
presbycusis age-related hearing loss Deel

By Dr. Gary L. Deel
Faculty Director, Wallace E. Boston School of Business, American Public University

One of the classes in American Public University’s Psychology program — Perception — covers the effects of presbycusis in interactions with our environment. Presbycusis is the gradual loss of hearing. It is linked to natural aging and degradation of bodily systems. According to the Cedars-Sinai Health Library, an estimated 30% of humans over the age of 65 have experienced some level of presbycusis.

How Does Hearing Work?

The process of normal human hearing is a complex collaboration of many intricate and specialized parts, all working together to receive…

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