The significance of automation and robots in every manufacturing industries is increasing. Industrial robots have replaced people in a wide selection of industries. Robots out perform humans in jobs which need precision, speed, endurance and reliability. Robots safely perform dirty and dangerous jobs. Traditional manufacturing robotic applications include material handling (pick and place), assembling, painting, welding, packaging, palletizing, product inspection and testing. Industrial robots are widely-used in the diverse selection of industries including automotive, electronics, medical, food production, biotech, pharmaceutical and machinery.
The ISO concept of a manipulating industrial robot is “an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator”. Based on the definition it could be fixed in place or mobile to be used in industrial automation applications. These industrial robots are programmable in a variety of axes. These are multi-functional items that can be custom-built and designed to perform a selection of operations.
The most important benefits of industrial robots is that they could be set to suit industry specific requirements and will work continuously for many years, consistently meeting high manufacturing quality standards. The economic expected life of the industrial robot is around 12–16 years. This can persistent accuracy industrial robots are getting to be an essential portion of manufacturing.
Industrial robots are classified into different categories depending on their mechanical structure. The major categories of industrial robots are:
Gantry (Cartesian) Robot: They’re stationary robots having three elements of motion. They work from an overhead grid which has a rectangular work envelope. They may be mainly accustomed to perform ‘pick and place’ actions. Gantry robots supply their axes over the work causing them to be also well suited for dispensing applications.
SCARA Robots: (Selectively Compliant Articulated Robot Arm) These robots have 4 axes to move. They move in the x-y-z coordinated circular work envelope. They are utilized for factory automation requiring pick and put work, application and assembly operations and handling machine tools.
Articulated robots: An articulated robot has rotary joints. It can have from two to 10 or even more interactive joints. Articulated robots are very well worthy of welding, painting and assembly.
Basic industrial robot designs may be customized by having different peripherals. End effectors, optical systems, and motion controllers are crucial add-ons. End effectors will be the end-of-arm-tooling (EOAT) that come with robotic arms. Grippers or wrenches that are employed to move or assemble parts are instances of end effectors. End effectors are designed and employed to sense and talk with the external environment. The finish effectors’ design depends on the application form requirements from the specific industry. Machine Vision systems are robotic optical systems. They are built-on digital input/output devices and computer networks used to control other manufacturing equipment like robotic arms. Machine vision is used for your inspection of manufactured goods for example semiconductor chips. Motion controllers are utilized to move robots and position stages smoothly and accurately with sub-micron repeatability.
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