#CyberViolence Citations Needed
Jaime Bravo

Someone linked me to this from reddit, I had a deeper look into citation #23 specifically, which was repetitvely cited through several studies. The actual source of the information is from 1980, relying on a 1955 study to justify the outcome of a hypothetical question.

Here is what I came up with.

Original quote:

studies show that after viewing pornography men are more likely to: report decreased empathy for rape victims[23] Source

This leads to:

report decreased empathy for rape victims

Source:(Bridges, 2006) (Yang, Gahyun, 2012)

Which leads to:

Source Page 3.

and loss of compassion for female rape victims (Zillmann, 1989; Zillmann & Bryant, 1982)

Which in turn, leads to:

Source Page 3.

If experimental data seem to suggest, for example, that exposure to depictions in which women appear to enjoy being raped can increase men’s acceptance of sexual violence against women and increase men’s endorsement of that rape myth (Malamuth & Check, 1981)

Which leads to:


A study with further sources from 1975–1980, of which:

However, many feminists also consider rape to be a “diagnosable, treatable, illness”
On the average, about 35% indicated some likelihood of raping (if they could be assured of not being caught)
Without additional date, the hypothetical nature of this questuon (i.e., if you could be assured of not being caught) makes it difficult to judge whether it reveals any socially meaningful information. One way to begin to assess its construct validity (Cronback & Meehl, 1955) as a measure of rape proclivity,…

To summarize, the author of the article, relies heavily on Confirmation bias.