I think we can safely dismiss cap-and-trade as a viable option. The private sector has shown time and again, that there is no transferable, resell-able “credit” of any kind, that they cannot speculate, monopolize, game, hedge, wager against, etc. into oblivion.
A straight carbon tax is necessary. Much of that should simply be used to undo the damage that the energy production itself creates (including climate change preparedness). The rest should go into efficiency and renewable (not nuclear) energy investment.