“…No matter how many times they explain a code to me, I don’t understand what it is and how it works, AND I truly doubt I ever will…”
The problem there is not with you. The problem is either 1) that individual developer doesn’t really understand themselves what it is and how it works. or 2) that individual developer’s paucity of communication skills.
That comes under the category of, “If somebody can’t explain a subject so that a 10 year old could understand it, then they don’t really understand that subject themselves!”
“…finding the perfect logic of that certain issue is very difficult to achieve because you need to speak that logic in their language for them to understand…”
That comes under the category of, “If the only tool you have is a hammer, then everything is a nail!”
Logic ain’t the only path to understanding or explaining something.
Like I always tell people, there is nothing that can’t be explained or understood using analogy and metaphor.
But the one-trick pony Spock wannabees in your shop simply don’t have that universal communication tool in their tool kit — for whatever reason.