Eco Cacao, A Story of Regeneration at Origin
Nancy Zamierowski

Nancy — Overall I think this is one of the better stories written on the topic and I enjoyed reading it as someone who has been involved in the worlds of cocoa and chocolate, from origin to the factory to consumers for over twenty years.

I invite you to take a closer look at the origins of CCN-51 as it is the product of conventional breeding, not genetic manipulation. It was developed by Ecuadorian botanist Homero Castro in the 1970s, well before GMO techniques were available.

In this context, the claim that CCN51 is GMO may be cited as definitive source material in other articles, and so should be researched by you more closely and corrected, IMO.

“Homero U. Castro describes CCN 51 as a cross of F1 of IMC-67 x ICS-95 by O-1, where O-1 was a cacao ascension collected by himself in a trip to Ecuador’s Valle de los Canelos in the Eastern part of Ecuador (Castro 1981). According to this paper [ Castro 1981 ], CCN stands for Coleccion Castro Naranjal, where 51 is for the cross number of this variety. CCN-51 was invented sometime in the 1960s.”

From the blog of Jeff Stern. Corroboration can be found on and many other sources.

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