The slippery world of predatory publishing and what it means for scientific integrity
I clearly recall the first time I saw an article that I co-wrote in print in an academic journal. It was exhilarating. While I knew that the ‘real world’ (friends and family) would likely never read it, for me it was a visible, tangible record of my accomplishment and a signal to my peers that this young scholar had “arrived” in the academic world.
I’ve Been Published! For an academic, research is the daily work and the publications coming out of that research are a public record of that research. Only when an article is published can others truly examine the research, critique it and attempt to replicate it. Replication of research is the one of the main principles of the scientific method.
In a way, peer-reviewed publications are a form of currency and trade in academic circles. How often and what kind of journals you publish in becomes a gauge of your proficiency or ‘brand’ as an academic. It can play a huge role in one’s career advancement.
The quality of a publication is measured through citations and impact. How often an article is cited can be indicative of the substance of the work that one does or serve as evidence of follow-on or related research arguments or observations. The impact factor of a journal, itself, is a proxy for the relative importance of a journal in each field of work. The higher the impact factor, the more scholarly cachet an article published in that journal has.
The overarching objective for a scholar (say, a social scientist like me) is to impact policy in some meaningful way. In many cases, the work that scientists produce leads to important innovations that serve public good more broadly (think seatbelts, GPS, flu shots, or solar cells). Publishing such works is not only meant to be a record of public dollar investment in important research, it is also an important part of the value chain that brings new innovations to people that need them.
The Problem with Publishing While academic journals are a very important part of the knowledge and innovation value chain, many have not (necessarily) been readily accessible for most people. They are often hidden behind publisher pay-walls. So, even if my dad or my sister wanted to read one of my journal articles, they probably couldn’t access it — even if I gave them a bread crumb trail (a URL, for example).
The promise of “open access” (OA) was hoped to remedy all of that. Heralded in with the Internet, OA brought with it the assurance of accessibility for everyone. It certainly raised expectations for those of us that valued the whole notion of openness.
The Problem with Publishing 2.0 Yet this promising new world of easy online access and share-ability also cultivated a new and unsavory market for less trustworthy publishing models known as “predatory publishers”. These publishers have questionable business model that spam scientists with emails enticing them to publish in journals that guarantee quick turn around in terms of the peer review process (see this). Two things come out of this:
- Predatory publishers attract authors with politically-driven agendas who understand the space and take advantage of peer-review shortcomings, and;
- They also trick good scholars into submitting good scientific works into spaces that ultimately de-value that work.
Why do I care? Two words: scientific integrity.
Back to my story… The first time that I saw an article that I co-authored in print. Through appropriate peer review, my work had earned a place in scholarly space that could be recognized, replicated, and further peer-reviewed. I was proud of that accomplishment. It was a mark of my research abilities and a signal as to the integrity of my work.
Unfortunately, OA and its promise for accessibility has been blemished with the introduction and rapid growth of predatory publishing in the scholarly space. Scientific integrity is at risk. As scholars, we need to distinguish the good journals from the other ones. As consumers, we need to think critically about how science is represented in the media.
Science is all around us. It is in architecture (in our homes and the buildings we work in), in the mechanics of our cars, and in the technology of cell phones. It is in our medicine and food and in how we produce both. If agenda-driven or poorly peer-reviewed science is making its way into downstream spaces of media and social media there are implications for society. This creates unnecessary barriers for socially and economically valuable innovations through misrepresentation of science and technologies.
When scientific integrity is at risk, so is society. We should all care.
Beall, Jeffrey. (2016). Scholarly Open Access: Available online at: https://scholarlyoa.com/
Giddings, Val. (2013) Peer Review — where you thought it ended? That’s just the beginning! Information Technology and Innovation Foundation. Available online at: https://itif.org/publications/2013/07/12/peer-review-%E2%80%93-where-you-thought-it-ended-that%E2%80%99s-just-beginning
Rennie, D. (2010). “Integrity in Scientific Publishing.” Health Services Research. June. 45(3). Available online at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2875766/
Rennie D., Yank V., Emanuel L. (1997). “When authorship fails. A proposal to make contributors accountable.” The Journal of the American Medical Association. Aug 20;278(7):579–85
Ryan, Camille and John Vicini. (2016). Why You Should Avoid Predatory Journals, Welcome Rigorous Review. Forbes. Available online at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/gmoanswers/2016/06/30/predatory-journals/#410a888a5558
Retraction Watch. Available online at: http://retractionwatch.com/
White, E. (2011). “The Peer Review Process: Benefit or Detriment to Quality Scholarly Journal Publication.” Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology. Volume 13, Issue 1. Available online at: http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1185&context=totem