Recessive: Tay sachs disease. Cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia.

Dominant: some human disorders are due to dominant alleles. achondroplasia: form of dwarfism. Huntington’s disease:

Chromosomal abnormalities: nondisjunction: pairs of homologous chromosomes do not separate normally during meiosis. Aneuploidy. She’s going too damn fast in theses power points I’m done. Down syndrome. Turners syndrome . Klinefelters syndrome.

Sex-linked: if x and y are regular chromosomes they can make mistakes too. They reside on the X chromosome. Color blindness, duchenne muscular dystrophy, hemophilia. Found more in men. Ex) woman who’s a carrier for hemophilia, marries a hemophilic. Probability of child having it? Son with it? Daughter with it? 50%, 50%, 50% …………muscular dystrophy:weakening of muscles and loss of coordination hemophilia: missing 1 or more prots required to clot blood.

Multifactorial diseases: lots of symptoms. Heart disease, diabetes, cancer, alcoholism, some mental illnesses.



Complete dominance:

Incomplete dominance: some expressing red, some white, appears to be pink. Some alleles are neither dominated not recessive.

Multiple alleles: most genes exist in pops in more than 2 allelic forms. Ex) eye color, blood types.

In Punnet square, because you have multiple alleles, you use I (enzyme for blood) and A (I^A I^A or I^A); B (I^B I^B or I^B); AB (I^A I^B); and O (ii)

Pleiotropy: most genes have multiple phenotypic effects, a property called

Epistasis: there are other things controlling the expression of your genes.

Polygenic inheritance: multiple genes controlling one particular protein. Ex) height and skin color.

Environment can also effect a genes expression.

Pedigree: boys circles, girls squares. Full shade: have it. Half shade: carrying it.


Rule of addition: dd and DD can get a heterozygote or Dd and Dd can get a heterozygote. Just do the Punnet square dog..

Rule of multiplication used for dihybrid cross.

One clap, two clap, three clap, forty?

By clapping more or less, you can signal to us which stories really stand out.