In defense of skepticism about deep learning

“All truth passes through three stages: First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as self-evident.”

— Often attributed to Schopenhauer

In a recent appraisal of deep learning (Marcus, 2018) I outlined ten challenges for deep learning, and suggested that deep learning by itself, although useful, was unlikely to lead on its own to artificial general intelligence. I suggested instead the deep learning be viewed “not as a universal solvent, but simply as one tool among many.”


  1. Thanks to Amy Bernard, Josh Cohen, Ernie Davis, Shlomo Shraga Engelson, Jose Hernandez-Orallo, Adam Marblestone, Melanie Mitchell, Ajay Patel, Omar Uddin and Brad Wyble for comments.


Bordes, A., Usunier, N., Chopra, S., & Weston, J. (2015). Large-scale Simple Question Answering with Memory Networks. arXiv.

CEO & Founder Robust.AI; co-author (with Ernest Davis) Rebooting.AI. Also proud dad, Founder of Geometric Intelligence, acquired by Uber, & Emeritus Prof., NYU.