Using the Google Cloud Dataproc WorkflowTemplates API to Automate Spark and Hadoop Workloads on GCP

Introduction

In the previous post, Big Data Analytics with Java and Python, using Cloud Dataproc, Google’s Fully-Managed Spark and Hadoop Service, we explored Google Cloud Dataproc using the Google Cloud Console as well as the Google Cloud SDK and Cloud Dataproc API. We created clusters, then uploaded and ran Spark and PySpark jobs, then deleted clusters, each as discrete tasks. Although each task could be done via the Dataproc API and therefore automatable, they were independent tasks, without awareness of the previous task’s state.

In this brief follow-up post, we will examine the Cloud Dataproc WorkflowTemplates API to more efficiently and effectively automate Spark and Hadoop workloads. According to Google, the Cloud Dataproc WorkflowTemplates API provides a flexible and easy-to-use mechanism for managing and executing Dataproc workflows. A Workflow Template is a reusable workflow configuration. It defines a graph of jobs with information on where to run those jobs. A Workflow is an operation that runs a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) of jobs on a cluster. Shown below, we see one of the Workflows that will be demonstrated in this post, displayed in Spark History Server Web UI.

Here we see a four-stage DAG of one of the three jobs in the workflow, displayed in Spark History Server Web UI.

Workflows are ideal for automating large batches of dynamic Spark and Hadoop jobs, and for long-running and unattended job execution, such as overnight.

Demonstration

Using the Python and Java projects from the previous post, we will first create workflow templates using the just the WorkflowTemplates API. We will create the template, set a managed cluster, add jobs to the template, and instantiate the workflow. Next, we will further optimize and simplify our workflow by using a YAML-based workflow template file. The YAML-based template file eliminates the need to make API calls to set the template’s cluster and add the jobs to the template. Finally, to further enhance the workflow and promote re-use of the template, we will incorporate parameterization. Parameters will allow us to pass parameters (key/value) pairs from the command line to workflow template, and on to the Python script as input arguments.

It is not necessary to use the Google Cloud Console for this post. All steps will be done using Google Cloud SDK shell commands. This means all steps may be automated using CI/CD DevOps tools, like Jenkins and Spinnaker on GKE.

Source Code

All open-sourced code for this post can be found on GitHub within three repositories: dataproc-java-demo, dataproc-python-demo, and dataproc-workflow-templates. Source code samples are displayed as GitHub Gists, which may not display correctly on all mobile and social media browsers.

WorkflowTemplates API

Always start by ensuring you have the latest Google Cloud SDK updates and are working within the correct Google Cloud project.

gcloud components update
export PROJECT_ID=your-project-id 
gcloud config set project $PROJECT

Set the following variables based on your Google environment. The variables will be reused throughout the post for multiple commands.

export REGION=your-region
export ZONE=your-zone
export BUCKET_NAME=your-bucket

The post assumes you still have the Cloud Storage bucket we created in the previous post. In the bucket, you will need the two Kaggle IBRD CSV files, available on Kaggle, the compiled Java JAR file from the dataproc-java-demo project, and a new Python script, international_loans_dataproc.py, from the dataproc-python-demo project.

Use gsutil with the copy (cp) command to upload the four files to your Storage bucket.

gsutil cp data/ibrd-statement-of-loans-*.csv $BUCKET_NAME
gsutil cp build/libs/dataprocJavaDemo-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar $BUCKET_NAME
gsutil cp international_loans_dataproc.py $BUCKET_NAME

Following Google’s suggested process, we create a workflow template using the workflow-templates create command.

export TEMPLATE_ID=template-demo-1

gcloud dataproc workflow-templates create \
$TEMPLATE_ID --region $REGION

Adding a Cluster

Next, we need to set a cluster for the workflow to use, in order to run the jobs. Cloud Dataproc will create and use a Managed Cluster for your workflow or use an existing cluster. If the workflow uses a managed cluster, it creates the cluster, runs the jobs, and then deletes the cluster when the jobs are finished. This means, for many use cases, there is no need to maintain long-lived clusters, they become just an ephemeral part of the workflow.

We set a managed cluster for our Workflow using the workflow-templates set-managed-cluster command. We will re-use the same cluster specifications we used in the previous post, the Standard, 1 master node and 2 worker nodes, cluster type.

gcloud dataproc workflow-templates set-managed-cluster \
$TEMPLATE_ID \
--region $REGION \
--zone $ZONE \
--cluster-name three-node-cluster \
--master-machine-type n1-standard-4 \
--master-boot-disk-size 500 \
--worker-machine-type n1-standard-4 \
--worker-boot-disk-size 500 \
--num-workers 2 \
--image-version 1.3-deb9

Alternatively, if we already had an existing cluster, we would use the workflow-templates set-cluster-selector command, to associate that cluster with the workflow template.

gcloud dataproc workflow-templates set-cluster-selector \
$TEMPLATE_ID \
--region $REGION \
--cluster-labels goog-dataproc-cluster-uuid=$CLUSTER_UUID

To get the existing cluster’s UUID label value, you could use a command similar to the following.

CLUSTER_UUID=$(gcloud dataproc clusters describe $CLUSTER_2 \
--region $REGION \
| grep 'goog-dataproc-cluster-uuid:' \
| sed 's/.* //')
echo $CLUSTER_UUID
1c27efd2-f296-466e-b14e-c4263d0d7e19

Adding Jobs

Next, we add the jobs we want to run to the template. Each job is considered a step in the template, each step requires a unique step id. We will add three jobs to the template, two Java-based Spark jobs from the previous post, and a new Python-based PySpark job.

First, we add the two Java-based Spark jobs, using the workflow-templates add-job spark command. This command’s flags are nearly identical to the dataproc jobs submit spark command, used in the previous post.

export STEP_ID=ibrd-small-spark

gcloud dataproc workflow-templates add-job spark \
--region $REGION \
--step-id $STEP_ID \
--workflow-template $TEMPLATE_ID \
--class org.example.dataproc.InternationalLoansAppDataprocSmall \
--jars $BUCKET_NAME/dataprocJavaDemo-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar
export STEP_ID=ibrd-large-spark

gcloud dataproc workflow-templates add-job spark \
--region $REGION \
--step-id $STEP_ID \
--workflow-template $TEMPLATE_ID \
--class org.example.dataproc.InternationalLoansAppDataprocLarge \
--jars $BUCKET_NAME/dataprocJavaDemo-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar

Next, we add the Python-based PySpark job, international_loans_dataproc.py, as the second job in the template. This Python script requires three input arguments, on lines 15–17, which are the bucket where the data is located and the and results are placed, the name of the data file, and the directory in the bucket where the results will be placed (gist).

#!/usr/bin/python
# Author: Gary A. Stafford
# License: MIT
# Arguments Example:
# gs://dataproc-demo-bucket
# ibrd-statement-of-loans-historical-data.csv
# ibrd-summary-large-python
from pyspark.sql import SparkSession
import sys
def main(argv):
storage_bucket = argv[0]
data_file = argv[1]
results_directory = argv[2]
print "Number of arguments: {0} arguments.".format(len(sys.argv))
print "Argument List: {0}".format(str(sys.argv))
spark = SparkSession \
.builder \
.master("yarn") \
.appName('dataproc-python-demo') \
.getOrCreate()
# Defaults to INFO
sc = spark.sparkContext
sc.setLogLevel("WARN")
# Loads CSV file from Google Storage Bucket
df_loans = spark \
.read \
.format("csv") \
.option("header", "true") \
.option("inferSchema", "true") \
.load(storage_bucket + "/" + data_file)
# Creates temporary view using DataFrame
df_loans.withColumnRenamed("Country", "country") \
.withColumnRenamed("Country Code", "country_code") \
.withColumnRenamed("Disbursed Amount", "disbursed") \
.withColumnRenamed("Borrower's Obligation", "obligation") \
.withColumnRenamed("Interest Rate", "interest_rate") \
.createOrReplaceTempView("loans")
# Performs basic analysis of dataset
df_disbursement = spark.sql("""
SELECT country, country_code,
format_number(total_disbursement, 0) AS total_disbursement,
format_number(ABS(total_obligation), 0) AS total_obligation,
format_number(avg_interest_rate, 2) AS avg_interest_rate
FROM (
SELECT country, country_code,
SUM(disbursed) AS total_disbursement,
SUM(obligation) AS total_obligation,
AVG(interest_rate) AS avg_interest_rate
FROM loans
GROUP BY country, country_code
ORDER BY total_disbursement DESC
LIMIT 25)
""").cache()
print "Results:"
df_disbursement.show(25, True)
# Saves results to single CSV file in Google Storage Bucket
df_disbursement.write \
.mode("overwrite") \
.format("parquet") \
.save(storage_bucket + "/" + results_directory)
spark.stop()
if __name__ == "__main__":
main(sys.argv[1:])

We pass the arguments to the Python script as part of the PySpark job, using the workflow-templates add-job pyspark command.

export STEP_ID=ibrd-large-pyspark

gcloud dataproc workflow-templates add-job pyspark \
$BUCKET_NAME/international_loans_dataproc.py \
--step-id $STEP_ID \
--workflow-template $TEMPLATE_ID \
--region $REGION \
-- $BUCKET_NAME \
ibrd-statement-of-loans-historical-data.csv \
ibrd-summary-large-python

That’s it, we have created our first Cloud Dataproc Workflow Template using the Dataproc WorkflowTemplate API. To view our template we can use the following two commands. First, use the workflow-templates list command to display a list of available templates. The list command output displays the version of the workflow template and how many jobs are in the template.

gcloud dataproc workflow-templates list --region $REGION

ID JOBS UPDATE_TIME VERSION
template-demo-1 3 2018-12-15T16:32:06.508Z 5

Then, we use the workflow-templates describe command to show the details of a specific template.

gcloud dataproc workflow-templates describe \
$TEMPLATE_ID --region $REGION

Using the workflow-templates describe command, we should see output similar to the following (gist).

createTime: '2018-12-15T16:31:21.779Z'
id: template-demo-1
jobs:
- sparkJob:
jarFileUris:
- gs://dataproc-demo-bucket/dataprocJavaDemo-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar
mainClass: org.example.dataproc.InternationalLoansAppDataprocSmall
stepId: ibrd-small-spark
- sparkJob:
jarFileUris:
- gs://dataproc-demo-bucket/dataprocJavaDemo-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar
mainClass: org.example.dataproc.InternationalLoansAppDataprocLarge
stepId: ibrd-large-spark
- pysparkJob:
args:
- gs://dataproc-demo-bucket
- ibrd-statement-of-loans-historical-data.csv
- ibrd-summary-large-python
mainPythonFileUri: gs://dataproc-demo-bucket/international_loans_dataproc.py
stepId: ibrd-large-pyspark
name: projects/dataproc-demo-224523/regions/us-east1/workflowTemplates/template-demo-1
placement:
managedCluster:
clusterName: three-node-cluster
config:
gceClusterConfig:
zoneUri: us-east1-b
masterConfig:
diskConfig:
bootDiskSizeGb: 500
machineTypeUri: n1-standard-4
softwareConfig:
imageVersion: 1.3-deb9
workerConfig:
diskConfig:
bootDiskSizeGb: 500
machineTypeUri: n1-standard-4
numInstances: 2
updateTime: '2018-12-15T16:32:06.508Z'
version: 5

In the template description, notice the template’s id, the managed cluster in the placement section, and the three jobs, all which we added using the above series of workflow-templates commands. Also, notice the creation and update timestamps and version number, which were automatically generated by Dataproc. Lastly, notice the name, which refers to the GCP project and region where this copy of the template is located. Had we used an existing cluster with our workflow, as opposed to a managed cluster, the placement section would have looked as follows.

placement:
clusterSelector:
clusterLabels:
goog-dataproc-cluster-uuid: your_clusters_uuid_label_value

To instantiate the workflow, we use the workflow-templates instantiate command. This command will create the managed cluster, run all the steps (jobs), then delete the cluster. I have added the time command to see how fast the workflow will take to complete.

time gcloud dataproc workflow-templates instantiate \
$TEMPLATE_ID --region $REGION #--async

We can observe the progress from the Google Cloud Dataproc Console, or from the command line by omitting the --async flag. Below we see the three jobs completed successfully on the managed cluster.

Waiting on operation [projects/dataproc-demo-224523/regions/us-east1/operations/e720bb96-9c87-330e-b1cd-efa4612b3c57].
WorkflowTemplate [template-demo-1] RUNNING
Creating cluster: Operation ID [projects/dataproc-demo-224523/regions/us-east1/operations/e1fe53de-92f2-4f8c-8b3a-fda5e13829b6].
Created cluster: three-node-cluster-ugdo4ygpl52bo.
Job ID ibrd-small-spark-ugdo4ygpl52bo RUNNING
Job ID ibrd-large-spark-ugdo4ygpl52bo RUNNING
Job ID ibrd-large-pyspark-ugdo4ygpl52bo RUNNING
Job ID ibrd-small-spark-ugdo4ygpl52bo COMPLETED
Job ID ibrd-large-spark-ugdo4ygpl52bo COMPLETED
Job ID ibrd-large-pyspark-ugdo4ygpl52bo COMPLETED
Deleting cluster: Operation ID [projects/dataproc-demo-224523/regions/us-east1/operations/f2a40c33-3cdf-47f5-92d6-345463fbd404].
WorkflowTemplate [template-demo-1] DONE
Deleted cluster: three-node-cluster-ugdo4ygpl52bo.
1.02s user 0.35s system 0% cpu 5:03.55 total

In the output, you see the creation of the cluster, the three jobs running and completing successfully, and finally the cluster deletion. The entire workflow took approximately 5 minutes to complete. Below is the view of the workflow’s results from the Dataproc Clusters Console Jobs tab.

Below we see the output from the PySpark job, run as part of the workflow template, shown in the Dataproc Clusters Console Output tab. Notice the three input arguments we passed to the Python script from the workflow template, listed in the output.

We see the arguments passed to the job, from the Jobs Configuration tab.

Examining the Google Cloud Dataproc Jobs Console, we will observe that the WorkflowTemplate API automatically adds a unique alphanumeric extension to both the name of the managed clusters we create, as well as to the name of each job that is run. The extension on the cluster name matches the extension on the jobs ran on that cluster.

YAML-based Workflow Template

Although, the above WorkflowTemplates API-based workflow was certainly more convenient than using the individual Cloud Dataproc API commands. At a minimum, we don’t have to remember to delete our cluster when the jobs are complete, as I often do. To further optimize the workflow, we will introduce YAML-based Workflow Template. According to Google, you can define a workflow template in a YAML file, then instantiate the template to run the workflow. You can also import and export a workflow template YAML file to create and update a Cloud Dataproc workflow template resource.

We can export our first workflow template to create our YAML-based template file.

gcloud dataproc workflow-templates export template-demo-1 \
--destination template-demo-2.yaml \
--region $REGION

Below is our first YAML-based template, template-demo-2.yaml. You will need to replace the values in the template with your own values, based on your environment (gist).

jobs:
- sparkJob:
jarFileUris:
- gs://dataproc-demo-bucket/dataprocJavaDemo-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar
mainClass: org.example.dataproc.InternationalLoansAppDataprocSmall
stepId: ibrd-small-spark
- sparkJob:
jarFileUris:
- gs://dataproc-demo-bucket/dataprocJavaDemo-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar
mainClass: org.example.dataproc.InternationalLoansAppDataprocLarge
stepId: ibrd-large-spark
- pysparkJob:
args:
- gs://dataproc-demo-bucket
- ibrd-statement-of-loans-historical-data.csv
- ibrd-summary-large-python
mainPythonFileUri: gs://dataproc-demo-bucket/international_loans_dataproc.py
stepId: ibrd-large-pyspark
placement:
managedCluster:
clusterName: three-node-cluster
config:
gceClusterConfig:
zoneUri: us-east1-b
masterConfig:
diskConfig:
bootDiskSizeGb: 500
machineTypeUri: n1-standard-4
softwareConfig:
imageVersion: 1.3-deb9
workerConfig:
diskConfig:
bootDiskSizeGb: 500
machineTypeUri: n1-standard-4
numInstances: 2

Note the template looks almost similar to the template we just created previously using the WorkflowTemplates API. The YAML-based template requires the placement and jobs fields. All the available fields are detailed, here.

To run the template we use the workflow-templates instantiate-from-filecommand. Again, I will use the time command to measure performance.

time gcloud dataproc workflow-templates instantiate-from-file \
--file template-demo-2.yaml \
--region $REGION

Running the workflow-templates instantiate-from-file command will run a workflow, nearly identical to the workflow we ran in the previous example, with a similar timing. Below we see the three jobs completed successfully on the managed cluster, in approximately the same time as the previous workflow.

Waiting on operation [projects/dataproc-demo-224523/regions/us-east1/operations/7ba3c28e-ebfa-32e7-9dd6-d938a1cfe23b].
WorkflowTemplate RUNNING
Creating cluster: Operation ID [projects/dataproc-demo-224523/regions/us-east1/operations/8d05199f-ed36-4787-8a28-ae784c5bc8ae].
Created cluster: three-node-cluster-5k3bdmmvnna2y.
Job ID ibrd-small-spark-5k3bdmmvnna2y RUNNING
Job ID ibrd-large-spark-5k3bdmmvnna2y RUNNING
Job ID ibrd-large-pyspark-5k3bdmmvnna2y RUNNING
Job ID ibrd-small-spark-5k3bdmmvnna2y COMPLETED
Job ID ibrd-large-spark-5k3bdmmvnna2y COMPLETED
Job ID ibrd-large-pyspark-5k3bdmmvnna2y COMPLETED
Deleting cluster: Operation ID [projects/dataproc-demo-224523/regions/us-east1/operations/a436ae82-f171-4b0a-9b36-5e16406c75d5].
WorkflowTemplate DONE
Deleted cluster: three-node-cluster-5k3bdmmvnna2y.
1.16s user 0.44s system 0% cpu 4:48.84 total

Parameterization of Templates

To further optimize the workflow template process for re-use, we have the option of passing parameters to our template. Imagine you now receive new loan snapshot data files every night. Imagine you need to run the same data analysis on the financial transactions of thousands of your customers, nightly. Parameterizing templates makes it more flexible and reusable. By removing hard-codes values, such as Storage bucket paths and data file names, a single template may be re-used for multiple variations of the same job. Parameterization allows you to automate hundreds or thousands of Spark and Hadoop jobs in a workflow or workflows, each with different parameters, programmatically.

To demonstrate the parameterization of a workflow template, we create another YAML-based template with just the Python/PySpark job, template-demo-3.yaml. If you recall from our first example, the Python script, international_loans_dataproc.py, requires three input arguments: the bucket where the data is located and the and results are placed, the name of the data file, and the directory in the bucket, where the results will be placed.

We will replace four of the values in the template with parameters. We will inject those parameter’s values when we instantiate the workflow. Below is the new parameterized template. The template now has a parameters section from lines 26–46. They define parameters that will be used to replace the four values on lines 3–7 (gist).

jobs:
- pysparkJob:
args:
- storage_bucket_parameter
- data_file_parameter
- results_directory_parameter
mainPythonFileUri: main_python_file_parameter
stepId: ibrd-pyspark
placement:
managedCluster:
clusterName: three-node-cluster
config:
gceClusterConfig:
zoneUri: us-east1-b
masterConfig:
diskConfig:
bootDiskSizeGb: 500
machineTypeUri: n1-standard-4
softwareConfig:
imageVersion: 1.3-deb9
workerConfig:
diskConfig:
bootDiskSizeGb: 500
machineTypeUri: n1-standard-4
numInstances: 2
parameters:
- description: Python script to run
fields:
- jobs['ibrd-pyspark'].pysparkJob.mainPythonFileUri
name: MAIN_PYTHON_FILE
- description: Storage bucket location of data file and results
fields:
- jobs['ibrd-pyspark'].pysparkJob.args[0]
name: STORAGE_BUCKET
validation:
regex:
regexes:
- gs://.*
- description: IBRD data file
fields:
- jobs['ibrd-pyspark'].pysparkJob.args[1]
name: IBRD_DATA_FILE
- description: Result directory
fields:
- jobs['ibrd-pyspark'].pysparkJob.args[2]
name: RESULTS_DIRECTORY

Note the PySpark job’s three arguments and the location of the Python script have been parameterized. Parameters may include validation. As an example of validation, the template uses regex to validate the format of the Storage bucket path. The regex follows Google’s RE2 regular expression library syntax. If you need help with regex, the Regex Tester — Golang website is a convenient way to test your parameter’s regex validations.

First, we import the new parameterized YAML-based workflow template, using the workflow-templates import command. Then, we instantiate the template using the workflow-templates instantiate command. The workflow-templates instantiatecommand will run the single PySpark job, analyzing the smaller IBRD data file, and placing the resulting Parquet-format file in a directory within the Storage bucket. We pass the Python script location, bucket link, smaller IBRD data file name, and output directory, as parameters to the template, and therefore indirectly, three of these, as input arguments to the Python script.

export TEMPLATE_ID=template-demo-3
gcloud dataproc workflow-templates import $TEMPLATE_ID \
--region $REGION --source template-demo-3.yaml

gcloud dataproc workflow-templates instantiate \
$TEMPLATE_ID --region $REGION --async \
--parameters MAIN_PYTHON_FILE="$BUCKET_NAME/international_loans_dataproc.py",STORAGE_BUCKET=$BUCKET_NAME,IBRD_DATA_FILE="ibrd-statement-of-loans-latest-available-snapshot.csv",RESULTS_DIRECTORY="ibrd-summary-small-python"

Next, we will analyze the larger historic data file, using the same parameterized YAML-based workflow template, but changing two of the four parameters we are passing to the template with the workflow-templates instantiate command. This will run a single PySpark job on the larger IBRD data file and place the resulting Parquet-format file in a different directory within the Storage bucket.

time gcloud dataproc workflow-templates instantiate \
$TEMPLATE_ID --region $REGION \
--parameters MAIN_PYTHON_FILE="$BUCKET_NAME/international_loans_dataproc.py",STORAGE_BUCKET=$BUCKET_NAME,IBRD_DATA_FILE="ibrd-statement-of-loans-historical-data.csv",RESULTS_DIRECTORY="ibrd-summary-large-python"

This is the power of parameterization — one workflow template and one job script, but two different datasets and two different results.

Below we see the single PySpark job ran on the managed cluster.

Waiting on operation [projects/dataproc-demo-224523/regions/us-east1/operations/b3c5063f-e3cf-3833-b613-83db12b82f32].
WorkflowTemplate [template-demo-3] RUNNING
Creating cluster: Operation ID [projects/dataproc-demo-224523/regions/us-east1/operations/896b7922-da8e-49a9-bd80-b1ac3fda5105].
Created cluster: three-node-cluster-j6q2al2mkkqck.
Job ID ibrd-pyspark-j6q2al2mkkqck RUNNING
Job ID ibrd-pyspark-j6q2al2mkkqck COMPLETED
Deleting cluster: Operation ID [projects/dataproc-demo-224523/regions/us-east1/operations/fe4a263e-7c6d-466e-a6e2-52292cbbdc9b].
WorkflowTemplate [template-demo-3] DONE
Deleted cluster: three-node-cluster-j6q2al2mkkqck.
0.98s user 0.40s system 0% cpu 4:19.42 total

Using the workflow-templates list command again, should display a list of two workflow templates.

gcloud dataproc workflow-templates list --region $REGION

ID JOBS UPDATE_TIME VERSION
template-demo-3 1 2018-12-15T17:04:39.064Z 2
template-demo-1 3 2018-12-15T16:32:06.508Z 5

Looking within the Google Cloud Storage bucket, we should now see four different folders, the results of the workflows.

Job Results and Testing

To check on the status of a job, we use the dataproc jobs wait command. This returns the standard output (stdout) and standard error (stderr) for that specific job.

export SET_ID=ibrd-large-dataset-pyspark-cxzzhr2ro3i54

gcloud dataproc jobs wait $SET_ID \
--project $PROJECT_ID \
--region $REGION

The dataproc jobs wait command is frequently used for automated testing of jobs, often within a CI/CD pipeline. Assume we have expected part of the job output that indicates success, such as a string, boolean, or numeric value. We could any number of test frameworks or other methods to confirm the existence of that expected value or values. Below is a simple example of using the grep command to check for the existence of the expected line ‘ state: FINISHED’ in the standard output of the dataproc jobs wait command.

command=$(gcloud dataproc jobs wait $SET_ID \
--project $PROJECT_ID \
--region $REGION) &>/dev/null
if grep -Fqx "  state: FINISHED" <<< $command &>/dev/null; then
echo "Job Success!"
else
echo "Job Failure?"
fi
# single line alternative
if grep -Fqx " state: FINISHED" <<< $command &>/dev/null;then echo "Job Success!";else echo "Job Failure?";fi
Job Success!

Individual Operations

To view individual workflow operations, use the operations list and operations describe commands. The operations list command will list all operations.

Notice the three distinct series of operations within each workflow, shown with the operations list command: WORKFLOW, CREATE, and DELETE. In the example below, I’ve separated the operations by workflow, for better clarity.

gcloud dataproc operations list --region $REGION
NAME                                  TIMESTAMP                 TYPE      STATE  ERROR  WARNINGS
fe4a263e-7c6d-466e-a6e2-52292cbbdc9b 2018-12-15T17:11:45.178Z DELETE DONE
896b7922-da8e-49a9-bd80-b1ac3fda5105 2018-12-15T17:08:38.322Z CREATE DONE
b3c5063f-e3cf-3833-b613-83db12b82f32 2018-12-15T17:08:37.497Z WORKFLOW DONE
---
be0e5293-275f-46ad-b1f4-696ba44c222e 2018-12-15T17:07:26.305Z DELETE DONE
6784078c-cbe3-4c1e-a56e-217149f555a4 2018-12-15T17:04:40.613Z CREATE DONE
fcd8039e-a260-3ab3-ad31-01abc1a524b4 2018-12-15T17:04:40.007Z WORKFLOW DONE
---
b4b23ca6-9442-4ffb-8aaf-460bac144dd8 2018-12-15T17:02:16.744Z DELETE DONE
89ef9c7c-f3c9-4d01-9091-61ed9e1f085d 2018-12-15T17:01:45.514Z CREATE DONE
243fa7c1-502d-3d7a-aaee-b372fe317570 2018-12-15T17:01:44.895Z WORKFLOW DONE

We use the results of the operations list command to execute the operations describe command to describe a specific operation.

gcloud dataproc operations describe \
projects/$PROJECT_ID/regions/$REGION/operations/896b7922-da8e-49a9-bd80-b1ac3fda5105

Each type of operation contains different details. Note the fine-grain of detail we get from Dataproc using the operations describe command for a CREATE operation (gist).

projects/$PROJECT_ID/regions/$REGION/operations/896b7922-da8e-49a9-bd80-b1ac3fda5105
done: true
metadata:
'@type': type.googleapis.com/google.cloud.dataproc.v1beta2.ClusterOperationMetadata
clusterName: three-node-cluster-j6q2al2mkkqck
clusterUuid: 10656c6e-ef49-4264-805b-463e1e819626
description: Create cluster with 2 workers
operationType: CREATE
status:
innerState: DONE
state: DONE
stateStartTime: '2018-12-15T17:10:12.722Z'
statusHistory:
- state: PENDING
stateStartTime: '2018-12-15T17:08:38.322Z'
- state: RUNNING
stateStartTime: '2018-12-15T17:08:38.380Z'
name: projects/dataproc-demo-224523/regions/us-east1/operations/896b7922-da8e-49a9-bd80-b1ac3fda5105
response:
'@type': type.googleapis.com/google.cloud.dataproc.v1beta2.Cluster
clusterName: three-node-cluster-j6q2al2mkkqck
clusterUuid: 10656c6e-ef49-4264-805b-463e1e819626
config:
configBucket: dataproc-5214e13c-d3ea-400b-9c70-11ee08fac5ab-us-east1
gceClusterConfig:
networkUri: https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/dataproc-demo-224523/global/networks/default
serviceAccountScopes:
- https://www.googleapis.com/auth/bigquery
- https://www.googleapis.com/auth/bigtable.admin.table
- https://www.googleapis.com/auth/bigtable.data
- https://www.googleapis.com/auth/cloud.useraccounts.readonly
- https://www.googleapis.com/auth/devstorage.full_control
- https://www.googleapis.com/auth/devstorage.read_write
- https://www.googleapis.com/auth/logging.write
zoneUri: https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/dataproc-demo-224523/zones/us-east1-b
masterConfig:
diskConfig:
bootDiskSizeGb: 500
bootDiskType: pd-standard
imageUri: https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/cloud-dataproc/global/images/dataproc-1-3-deb9-20181206-000000-rc01
machineTypeUri: https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/dataproc-demo-224523/zones/us-east1-b/machineTypes/n1-standard-4
minCpuPlatform: AUTOMATIC
numInstances: 1
softwareConfig:
imageVersion: 1.3.19-deb9
properties:
capacity-scheduler:yarn.scheduler.capacity.root.default.ordering-policy: fair
core:fs.gs.block.size: '134217728'
core:fs.gs.metadata.cache.enable: 'false'
distcp:mapreduce.map.java.opts: -Xmx768m
distcp:mapreduce.map.memory.mb: '1024'
distcp:mapreduce.reduce.java.opts: -Xmx768m
distcp:mapreduce.reduce.memory.mb: '1024'
hdfs:dfs.datanode.address: 0.0.0.0:9866
hdfs:dfs.datanode.http.address: 0.0.0.0:9864
hdfs:dfs.datanode.https.address: 0.0.0.0:9865
hdfs:dfs.datanode.ipc.address: 0.0.0.0:9867
hdfs:dfs.namenode.handler.count: '20'
hdfs:dfs.namenode.http-address: 0.0.0.0:9870
hdfs:dfs.namenode.https-address: 0.0.0.0:9871
hdfs:dfs.namenode.lifeline.rpc-address: three-node-cluster-j6q2al2mkkqck-m:8050
hdfs:dfs.namenode.secondary.http-address: 0.0.0.0:9868
hdfs:dfs.namenode.secondary.https-address: 0.0.0.0:9869
hdfs:dfs.namenode.service.handler.count: '10'
hdfs:dfs.namenode.servicerpc-address: three-node-cluster-j6q2al2mkkqck-m:8051
mapred-env:HADOOP_JOB_HISTORYSERVER_HEAPSIZE: '3840'
mapred:mapreduce.job.maps: '21'
mapred:mapreduce.job.reduce.slowstart.completedmaps: '0.95'
mapred:mapreduce.job.reduces: '7'
mapred:mapreduce.map.cpu.vcores: '1'
mapred:mapreduce.map.java.opts: -Xmx2457m
mapred:mapreduce.map.memory.mb: '3072'
mapred:mapreduce.reduce.cpu.vcores: '1'
mapred:mapreduce.reduce.java.opts: -Xmx2457m
mapred:mapreduce.reduce.memory.mb: '3072'
mapred:mapreduce.task.io.sort.mb: '256'
mapred:yarn.app.mapreduce.am.command-opts: -Xmx2457m
mapred:yarn.app.mapreduce.am.resource.cpu-vcores: '1'
mapred:yarn.app.mapreduce.am.resource.mb: '3072'
presto-jvm:MaxHeapSize: 12288m
presto:query.max-memory-per-node: 7372MB
presto:query.max-total-memory-per-node: 7372MB
spark-env:SPARK_DAEMON_MEMORY: 3840m
spark:spark.driver.maxResultSize: 1920m
spark:spark.driver.memory: 3840m
spark:spark.executor.cores: '2'
spark:spark.executor.instances: '2'
spark:spark.executor.memory: 5586m
spark:spark.executorEnv.OPENBLAS_NUM_THREADS: '1'
spark:spark.scheduler.mode: FAIR
spark:spark.sql.cbo.enabled: 'true'
spark:spark.yarn.am.memory: 640m
yarn-env:YARN_TIMELINESERVER_HEAPSIZE: '3840'
yarn:yarn.nodemanager.resource.memory-mb: '12288'
yarn:yarn.scheduler.maximum-allocation-mb: '12288'
yarn:yarn.scheduler.minimum-allocation-mb: '1024'
workerConfig:
diskConfig:
bootDiskSizeGb: 500
bootDiskType: pd-standard
imageUri: https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/cloud-dataproc/global/images/dataproc-1-3-deb9-20181206-000000-rc01
machineTypeUri: https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/dataproc-demo-224523/zones/us-east1-b/machineTypes/n1-standard-4
minCpuPlatform: AUTOMATIC
numInstances: 2
labels:
goog-dataproc-cluster-name: three-node-cluster-j6q2al2mkkqck
goog-dataproc-cluster-uuid: 10656c6e-ef49-4264-805b-463e1e819626
goog-dataproc-location: us-east1
goog-dataproc-workflow-instance-id: b3c5063f-e3cf-3833-b613-83db12b82f32
goog-dataproc-workflow-template-id: template-demo-3
projectId: dataproc-demo-224523

Conclusion

In this brief, follow-up post to the previous post, Big Data Analytics with Java and Python, using Cloud Dataproc, Google’s Fully-Managed Spark and Hadoop Service, we have seen how easy the WorkflowTemplates API and YAML-based workflow templates make automating our analytics jobs. This post only scraped the surface of the complete functionality of the WorkflowTemplates API and parameterization of templates.

In a future post, we leverage the automation capabilities of the Google Cloud Platform, the WorkflowTemplates API, YAML-based workflow templates, and parameterization, to develop a fully-automated DevOps for Big Data workflow, capable of running hundreds of Spark and Hadoop jobs.