Deflection of Light by Refraction, Not Gravity (Curve Geometry of Spacetime)
New evidence has been found: Einstein’s proving method (test of general relativity) via eclipse is not scientifically correct and Einstein had ignored refraction of light. By coincidence this evidence in accordance with Professor R. C. Gupta, India, on his paper ‘Bending of Light Near a Star and Gravitational Red/Blue Shift: Alternative Explanation Based on Refraction of Light’.
“Many of the general relativity tests such as bending of light near a star and gravitational red/blue shift are explained without general relativity & without Newtonian approach. The author first casts doubts on both, the Newtonian and the relativistic approach; and proposes a novel alternative explanation. The new alternative explanation is based on refraction phenomenon of optics. It predicts that as the ray passes through/near the star’s atmospheric medium, it bends due to refraction phenomenon towards star core, like a ray bends while passing through a prism or water drop. A semi empirical estimation of the atmospheric height h and its refractive index μ are made to find the refraction results. The refraction based theory also suggests new explanation for gravitational red/blue shift; it tells that frequency ? remains constant (as it is so in refraction phenomenon) and the red/blue shift is due to change in wavelength ? due to change in velocity of light c in the medium.
Estimated results for bending of light and the red/blue shift etc. with the new approach though agree well with known values, but important thing is that the physics is quite different. Also discussed are black hole, gravitational lensing and space time in the new perspective of refraction. The proposed refraction based theory proposes a new look on black hole, suggesting that black hole formation is critically due to total internal reflection within atmosphere and subsequent absorption into the star core.Gravitational lensing is explained as real refraction lensing with possibility of chromatic aberration.
The new refraction based theory also makes a few new predictions. The present paper also suggests a possible alternative to the Einstein’s curved geometry of spacetime, and indicates that the fabric of spacetime which wraps(curves) around the mass is not the empty vacuum but the atmospheric medium. The new refraction based approach providing alternative to generalr elativity, could have important bearing on understanding of spacetime, gravity and cosmology !” (Bending of Light-Arxiv.org.pdf)
Astronomical Refraction and Terrestrial Refraction
Light is naturally available in our surrounding, either in day time or at night. Such light may derive from the natural or artificial resources. When we see an object located far from our standing place, we think that what we see is its actual appearance. We are frequently unaware that what we see is actually not the real appearance of such object. For example, once upon a time when we are at a beach and admiring the beauty of nature before the sun set. The sun looks moving down slowly, and in a certain time the lower part of the sun touches the edge of the sky or horizon. The panorama is so beautiful. However, when we see that beautiful panorama we are not aware that the actual sun has already fallen under the horizon. So, what we see is not the actual sun, but the apparent sun, or the sun on its ‘apparent position’. Even, the horizon or the sky edge that we see is not the actual sky edge, but the illusive sky edge.
Such phenomena is caused by the occurrence of light refraction reaching to our eyes. The light refraction causing the presence of apparent sun is called ‘astronomical light curve’ or ‘Astronomical Refraction’, whereas the thing causing the presence of the illusive sky edge is called ‘earthy light curve’ or “Terrestrial Refraction”. The said terrestrial refraction causes the phenomena of ‘Mirage’. And mirage is not an optical illusion, but an actual physical phenomena.
And so is at night time when the sky is clear and we can see and admire the stars sprinkle and spread at the sky. All those space objects are not in their true conditions, but on their apparent position, and all of them are caused by the astronomical refraction.
From the above explanation a question arises: Cannot we ever see in our bold eyes a star in the sky on its true position condition? Such a chance is available, though limited, and will be found at the following discussion.
The ray curve occurs because the lights of an object reaching to our eyes / observers are not transmitted in the form of straight lines, but deviated by a medium all along its track, including the deviation by the earth atmosphere. The ray curve is an angle occurring between the apparent position direction and the true position direction of the said object.
The light of the stars in the sky reaches the earth passing through a very long distance so far away, and has already passed through various kinds of medium respectively having different densities. The classical scientists such as Aristotle, Rene Desscrates, Sir Isaac Newton and others believed that the light of the stars reaching us on earth crept spreading through a medium the so-called “Luminiferous Ether”. However various kinds of experiments had been made, among other was an experiment conducted by the American Scientists Michelson and Morrey in the 19th century, and all of those experiments failed to detect the presence of luminiferous ether, so that the ether is deemed non-existent. There is a possibility that luminiferous ether truly exists, but it cannot be proven.
It is quite clear that the lights of objects in the sky reaching the earth have passed through layers of the terrestrial atmosphere, known as having different air density. Closer to the earth surface, the air is denser compared to the density of the air layer above it. The density is getting looser or weaker when it is getting higher.
Deflection of Light by Refraction
Snell’s Law on light refraction declares that if a ray of lights passes through from one medium to the others with different densities, such ray of lights will be reflected. The magnitude of refraction angle depends of density of its medium. For example, a ray of lights is passed though water, the said ray of lights will be reflected closer to the normal.
On the picture below it is illustrated that the normal line is N-N’. The light passes through from A to B, and the light track forms the angle ABN. The ABN angle is called ‘The Coming Angle’ or “Angle of Incidence”.
In water, direction of light track is reflected close to the normal line, namely the B-C direction, and forms the ‘CBN’ Angle’. This CBN’ Angle is called the ‘Refraction Angle’ or the “Angle of Refraction”. And the sinus of the Incidence Angle and sinus of the Refraction Angle have a fixed ratio. Such a ratio is called “Index of Refraction”.
A ray of lights is not reflected if its track is at the same direction with the normal. This statement answers the above question, that the change and the only chance to see a star on its true position is at the moment when the said star is precisely located straight above our head as an observer, or exactly at the Zenith point.
At the picture, the difference between air density and water density is sufficiently big or in a sudden, therefore the light track in the air and in water looks like a broken line. It is completely different from the light track at the earth atmosphere. The air density at the layers of earth atmosphere changes gradually and regularly. This causes the light refraction in the form of a curve. And the effect of such curve, the apparent position of a star (celestial bodies: Sun, Stars, Planets) will always look higher than its actual position.
A curve of ray or light deflection is also known at the theory of Einstein, namely a deflection of light when passing through a gravity field of a massive object. According to this theory, when the light of a star passes through a gravity field of the sun, the said light will be deflected inwards, so that there will also be the ‘apparent position’ and the ‘true position’ of a star.
If Einstein’s theory of relativity was correct, then the light from stars that passed closest to the sun would show the greatest degree of bending. And the stars whose light tracks are very far from the sun have their lights not being bent or deflected. The stars whose lights are not deflected means that there is no difference between the apparent position and the actual/true position of the stars: negligible difference between actual and apparent positions of star.
If being consistent with this theory, it means that all stars visible at night time are at the appearance of the stars on their true positions, because the said stars do not pass through the field of gravity.
This is certainly incorrect if it is seen from the astronomical scientific point of view in astronomy.
The presence of ‘apparent position’ and ‘true position’ of a star is caused by the presence of ray curve, either the astronomical refraction or the terrestrial refraction, and not caused by the influence of gravity field. And due to the presence of ray curve, the ‘apparent position’ of a star always looks higher than its ‘true position’.
Einstein’s general theory of relativity was totally wrong.
- Einstein’s thought experiments are incomprehensive, illogical, and misleading. Einstein’s equivalence principle is false.
Actually, thought experiments can be made to obtain the result they wanted to get. Albert Einstein made a mistake in his thought experiments.(Thought experiment and equivalence principle misleading)
2.General relativity was inconsistent with Special relativity: In special theory of relativity Einstein rejected ether (1905), but in general theory of relativity Einstein accepted ether (1920).
Albert Einstein gave an address on 5 May 1920 at the University of Leiden. He chose as his topic Ether and the Theory of Relativity.
Recapitulating, we may say that according to the general theory of relativity space is endowed with physical qualities; in this sense, therefore, there exists an ether. According to the general theory of relativity space without ether is unthinkable; for in such space there not only would be no propagation of light, but also no possibility of existence for standards of space and time (measuring-rods and clocks), nor therefore any space-time intervals in the physical sense. But this ether may not be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of ponderable media, as consisting of parts which may be tracked through time. The idea of motion may not be applied to it.(Ether and the Theory of Relativity)
3.In General and Special theory of relativity Einstein had ignored the refraction of light (without taking into account the effect of Earth’s atmosphere)
A revelation of Universal Law: The velocity of light is constant
“Nothing can travel faster than the speed of light.”
“Light always travels at the same speed.”
Have you heard these statements before? They are often quoted as results of Einstein’s theory of relativity. Unfortunately, these statements are somewhat misleading.(www.rpi.edu/dept/phys/Dept2)
About Einstein’s curved geometry of spacetime, Einstein had ignored the existing of atmosperic medium. In fact, the fabric of spacetime which curves around the mass is not the empty vacuum but the atmospheric medium,
4.The deflection of light by the Sun is false. The deflection of light is caused by refraction, namely astronomical refraction and terrestrial refraction.
5.Gravitational redshift is false. Redshift and blueshift are caused by refraction, not gravity.
Andrew Ochadlick: Cosmological Redshift is Not a Doppler Shift (youtube.com/watch)
6.Gravitational lensing is false. Lensing is caused by refraction, not gravity. Lensing by Refraction…Not Gravity?
7.There’s the Shapiro time delay. There’s gravitational time dilation. Gravitational time dilation is not correct. Shapiro experiment is false, because without taking into account the effect of layer Earth’s atmosphere. Moreover, a revelation of universal law: ‘the velocity of light is constant’ (Special Relativity) is misleading. Speed of light slowed down when starlight passing through the Earth’s atmosphere. Time delay of light is caused by refraction, not gravity.
8.Einstein’s Time Dilation is false: Hafele-Keating Experiment without taking into account the effect of Earth’s atmosphere (refraction, density, and pressure)
Atomic Clocks at higher altitude tick faster than clocks on Earth’s surface. It is not caused by gravity, but by air density of atmosphere. Closer to the earth surface, the air is denser compared to the density of the air layer above it. The density is getting looser or weaker when it is getting higher.
It is has been known in traveling on an airplane. At higher altitude the density of amosphere is getting looser or weaker, and less of friction on an airplane. Traveling in weaker density of atmosphere an airplane can move faster than in denser atmosphere.
9.GPS doesn’t need Einstein theory of relativity.
In 1998, physicist Tom Van Flandern authored a paper in Physics Letters A that remains one of the best refutations of Einstein’s version of relativity ever published. Van Flandern argues that Hendrik Lorentz’s version of relativity, which incorporates an aether that all matter moves through, is more correct than Einstein’s version, based on experimental observations about the speed of gravity. Lorentz and Einstein’s versions of relativity are actually very similar. The main difference being that the speed of light is not a limiting factor in Lorentz’s version of relativity. Van Flandern argues that the speed of gravity is far faster than the speed of light, just as Newton’s laws describe it to be. Newton’s laws declare gravity to propagate instantaneously.
Van Flandern goes on to discuss GPS clocks, which are often cited as being proof positive of Einstein’s relativity. It may surprise you, but the GPS system doesn’t actually use Einstein’s field equations. In fact, this paper by the U.S. Naval Observatory tells us that, while incorporating Einstein’s equations into the system may slightly improve accuracy, the system itself doesn’t rely on them at all. To quote the opening line of the paper, “The Operational Control System (OCS) of the Global Positioning System (GPS) does not include the rigorous transformations between coordinate systems that Einstein’s general theory of relativity would seem to require.” (Why Einstein was wrong and Newton was right).
b.The GPS satellites use classical (Newtonian) relativistic principles to work. These are the same relativistic principles that make sense in the everyday world, that most people equate with ‘common sense’. GPS calculates positions based on geometric principles. The atomic clocks on the satellites have their rates preset in order to match experimentally observed effects. No General Relativity is used or needed.( Analysis by Wandera)
c. Atomic clocks at higher altitude tick faster than clocks on Earth’s surface. It is not caused by gravity, but by air density of atmosphere. Closer to the earth surface, the air is denser compared to the density of the air layer above it. The density is getting looser or weaker when it is getting higher.
10.Black holes do not exist.
The problem with this theory, though, is that it’s based on general relativity. In recent years, as our understanding of quantum theory has improved, numerous conflicts have arisen, especially in places where both theories apply — such as black holes and event horizons.
Basically, quantum mechanics has a big issue with the idea that event horizons completely and utterly destroy information — a big no-no in the world of quantum. Hawking’s new proposal tries to ameliorate this conflict between the two theories.(Stephen Hawking Research: There are no black holes)
11.About gravitational waves Einstein was wrong.There are no such things as curved/warped space. Spacetime just a mathematical model.There are no gravitational waves or ripples in spacetime. Where does energy for gravitational waves come from? Gravitational waves don’t carry any energy, so they’re just a formal mathematical construct with no real physical meaning (Nathan Rosen, 1955). Gravity is a real force, there are exist gravity waves, not gravitational waves. In the Earth’s atmosphere, gravity waves are a mechanism for the transfer of momentum from the troposphere to the stratosphere.
If gravitational waves exist, the speed of gravity/gravitational waves can’t the same speed as speed of light ‘c’.
“The theory (special relativity) also tells us that nothing can travel faster than light. However, it was inconsistent with the Newtonian theory of gravity, which said that objects attracted each other with a force that depended on the distance between them. This meant that if one moved one of the objects, the force on the other one would change instantaneously. Or in other gravitational effects should travel with infinite velocity, instead of at or below the speed of light, as the special theory of relativity required.”(Stephen Hawking,)
Gravitational waves are not part of the electromagnetic waves. Gravitational waves and electromagnetic waves are quite different. Measuring the speed of gravity in September 2002 by Kopeikin was wrong: because absence of evidence radiowaves for quasar are bent by Jupiter’s gravity.
12.Dark matter and dark energy do not make sense.
Dark energy. It is one of the most famous, and most embarrassing, problems in physics. In 1998, astronomers discovered that the universe is expanding at ever faster speeds. It’s an effect still searching for a cause — until then, everyone thought the universe’s expansion was slowing down after the big bang. “Theorists are still floundering around, looking for a sensible explanation,” says cosmologist Katherine Freese of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. “We’re all hoping that upcoming observations of supernovae, of clusters of galaxies and so on will give us more clues.”
One suggestion is that some property of empty space is responsible — cosmologists call it dark energy. But all attempts to pin it down have fallen woefully short. It’s also possible that Einstein’s theory of general relativity may need to be tweaked when applied to the very largest scales of the universe.(13 things that do not make sense}
Albert Einstein makes modern physics full of incompatibilities and full of unsolved mysteries and have to lost interest in the real world.
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