The scientific method has four steps:
1.Observation and description of a phenomenon (a concept),
2.Formulation of a hypothesis to explain the phenomenon,
3.Test the hypothesis. If experiments do not confirm the hypothesis, the hypothesis must be rejected or modified (Go back to Step 2),
4.Establish a theory based on repeated verification of the results.
In this case of Einstein’s hypothesis, step 1 observe natural phenomena of general relativity is constructed by thought experiments and his mathematics. Step 2 formulate hypothesis, Einstein concluded:
“From these purely theoretical considerations Einstein concluded that light, like any material object, travels in a curve when passing through the gravitational field of a massive body. Einstein calculated the degree of deflection that should be observed and predicted that for the stars closest to the Sun the deviation would be about 1.75 seconds of an arc”
The above hypothesis raise a question, where does the observation is made, from the space by a spacecraft or from the Earth? Einstein explains that observation is made from Earth:
“Einstein proposed therefore, that photographs be taken of the stars immediately bordering the darkened face of the sun during an eclipse and compared with photographs of those same stars made at another time. According to his theory, the light from the stars surrounding the Sun should be bent inward, toward the Sun, in traversing the Sun’s gravitational field; hence the images of these stars should appear to observer on earth to be shifted outward from their usual positions in the sky”
From the above statement we drew a conclude there are two points:
1.Observation is made from the Earth, and not from space
2.Test method during a solar eclipse.
If observation is made from the Earth, the results is not deflection of light by the Sun (a curve space around the Sun), but deflection of light by the Earth’s atmosphere.
According to Einstein, light travels in a curve when passing through the gravitational field of a massive body. In the Figure 5.2, starlight travels in a curve when passing through the gravitational field of the Sun, it labeled as x: deflection of light by the Sun. And starlight travels in a curve when passing through the gravitational field of the Earth, it labeled as y:deflection of light by the Earth’s atmosphere. From the Figure 5.2 it’s clear that Einstein’s hypothesis is not valid.(Sorry, the Figure can not be illustrated here)
And if consistent with the principles of the scientific method, the hypothesis could not proceed to the step 3.test hypothesis via rigorous experiment. The hypothesis is invalid and must be rejected or modified. Moreover, it is known that the test method proposed by Einstein is not scientifically correct.