Navigating Fake News
I would suggest that to be effective at achieving their outcomes, all groups at some point, need to devise strategies that are based on a truth that closely tracks what is actually happening.
Some fake news is spread as a means of creating coherence within group — allies and group members participate in spreading a particular narrative. But when it comes to coordinating action, all groups have an interest in best approximating reality.
The trick then to navigate this world is to find groups or individuals of a particular viewpoint that are carrying out the coordination role and cross reference with what their counterparts in other groups are doing/saying. Fakery for coherence’s sake is less likely in this stage.
People or organisations that provide some form of group coordination also build up their reputation for the coordination stage on the basis of their proximity to the way things really are as far as proximity to reality is a guide for likelihood of success.
This accounts for the tribal based fake news, but not so well for the disinformation designed to destabilise everyone.