Techniques Used for Water Filtration
Being as we are today, it has become imperative to make use of different methods to manage the ever-growing waste. Many options have cropped up in recent years to manage waste waters which help reduce water use and provide clean water for regular use. We bring before you a list of some of the most popularly used methods of treating waste water. Here’s the list:
- Carbon Filter
Activated carbon filtering is an effective way of removing contaminants and impurities from water. Impurities that lead to a change in the color and odour are effectively removed from water by activated carbon which works as an adsorbent due to its high porosity. Activated carbon has a very high surface area which it uses to absorb many chemicals and impurities from air and water. It works for longer duration and is used to treat municipal and industrial waste waters. It has proved an effective way of managing large amounts of waste water.
One of the oldest methods of water filtering, distillation works by evaporating water at boiling point and collecting the vapors, so formed, in another vessel where the rising vapors are condensed when they come in contact with normal water stored in the vessel. Distillation has a number of lacunae like certain impurities cannot be removed by boiling and are left behind in the distilled water. Also, acid content cannot be removed from water by distilling it. Distillation is also expensive and slow. Due to loss of minerals and oxygen, the water turns tasteless and is therefore used mainly in industries.
- Reverse Osmosis
One of the most popular methods of water treatment, RO system can be found in most of the water purifiers that are available in the market. It can beat impurities and bacteria effectively and is economical. A semi-permeable membrane which prevents high percentage of impurities lets osmosis takes place by allowing water to flow and mix with the other solution. It also includes the ion exclusion process. It separates the ions and other molecules from flowing through the membrane.
The percentage of clean water obtained from this process is very high and it is also considered cheap.
- UV Radiation
UV lamps are used in this process to generate ultraviolet radiation which is then used to treat the water. UV rays are absorbed by the microbial cells which make the microorganisms inactive. Special lamps are produced in two capacities which produce 185nm and 254nm UV light. This method, while being effective, does not remove particles and ions.
Water treatment has become essential in today’s world where clean water and air have become dear. It has become imperative to find out newer ways of managing the ever-rising waste and recycling it in order to prevent overexploitation of natural resources. While no method removes all impurities and contaminants, some methods such as reverse osmosis and carbon absorption are the most common ways of treating waste waters.