Jainism and World Problems

By Late Shri Champat Rai Jain

It is fairly evident to all thoughtful minds that the world of to day is all topsy-turvy in almost all essential respects. There is the eternal rush for armaments, and political power, the greed for gold and the grabbing of territory. Hearth and home have been threatened by the unchecked free-thinkerism of the modern generation ; churches and temples and pagodas are deserted while cinemas and theatres are thronged ; and religion itself has been routed by irreligion. The main cause of all this variety of troubles and undesirable conditions is one and only one — our ill-conceived Ideals.

To-day people are living under the unwholesome conviction that man is mere dust and returned to dust. This conviction produces its own unhappy complex in the mind and casts an evil spell over all the phases of human thought. The 
belief is the outcome of the supremacy of materialism, which itself is due to the failure of Religion to meet the argument of modern science in a fair and open light. If we had made a real study of the scriptures of the world’s religions, we would have discovered that Religion was itself the highest of 
all sciences, and could be relied upon to defend itself effectively against any form of attack from its opponents. But we have failed even to realize the simple fact that the books of most of the religions are couched not in plain language, but in allegorical expression, and completely misdirected ourselves 
as to their purport and the teaching of their founders. As men insist on reading, symbolic thought in an historical way, it is not surprising that history and science should be constantly piling up concrete facts to discredit the historical reading of the scriptural text. Its not the place for the fit elaboration of the allegorical method ; suffice it to say that books are now available which describe it with scientific precision, and explain the purport of all religions, and also the scientific basis on which they are all grounded and founded. But the first thing for a clear understanding of the point is a scientific investigation of comparative Religion, and the absence of bias and bigotry of all kinds whatsoever.

Amongst the books which may be referred to are my own : —

1. The Key of Knowledge,
2. The Confluence of Opposites,
3. Jainism, Christianity & Science, and,
4. The Lifting of the Veil or the Gems of Islam, 
Parts 1 & 11.

All these books deal with the allegories of different religions and give a rationally acceptable reading of them, at the same time making it clear that the interpretations presented actually express the real intentions of the founders of the religions concerned. And the extraordinary thing about this method is that when the different religions are understood correctly in this manner, they all reveal identically the same teaching and doctrine, and what is still more extraordinary is the fact that they all teach exactly the same thing as Jainism does. I may say at once that I am not here to claim any supremacy or superiority for Jainism over any other religion. Far from it ; I am only stating what has been found to be the case, and what any one will find to be the case, if he will proceed to study Religion as it ought to be studied. As a matter of fact, when I say that all religions have taught the same thing, put them all on a basis of equality, making it clear, at the same time, that no religion is higher than or superior to any other, when 
properly understood.

Thus far Materialism and the Science of Religion proper have not had an opportunity to try their strength against each other. Modern Science has never really understood what religion actually preached, and has been wasting its time in tiring heavy broad-sides into the ranks of what might 
be termed misunderstood theology passing current as religion. Neither scientists nor churchmen nor the preachers of religion have any adequate conception of the soul and of its nature and properties, and have never studied or even approached the subject from the scientific standpoint. One 
party preaches religion as history, and the other promptly denounces it with its terrible facts, which are quite sufficient to undermine irrational faith. This is why the world is full of Freethinkers, Agnostics and the like.

The results of this conflict between Science and Religion 
are very striking and far-reaching. Man is not only deprived of a religion, and of a basis for religious living, but of the very joy of contemplating the immortality of the soul. ‘Dust thou art to dust returnest,’ is the dictum of 
science to-day ; and as religion is not able to meet science on this point, the innermost belief of every thinking man and woman is tinged with the conviction of a hollowness within life itself : — nothing is permanent ; death comes to all and, as some think, happily puts an end to all. The fear 
of death is no longer a restraining influence; it may even 
become an incentive to wrong-doing in certain cases. The 
pallor of death is cast over the entire conscious life of man, filled as he is with the conviction that life is a mere con-course of atoms of matter, and may terminate any day.

Now, Jainism just meets this situation most admirably. 
It teaches that man is not only a body, but he is also a 
soul. The soul is not an airy immaterial nothing ; it is a 
permanent something — a substance ; and it is a simple sub- 
stance, unitary and indestructible, and, consequently, also 
uncreatable and uncreate. Immortality is the very foundation of individual life ; but it is engulfed and thwarted by the association of matter and the body of flesh. Flesh is inimical to the soul, and is the real enemy. Those who completely separate themselves from the flesh for all times, 
enjoy immortality, as many are doing now in the Abode of the Pure Perfect Souls, who are bodiless and immortal. Amongst the other attributes of the soul are such worshipful qualities as Omniscience and Bliss, The soul is 
really endowed by nature with all those attributes which 
are associated with our highest conception of Divinity, 
Every soul is, thus, its own God, since it is independent of 
all outside nature in respect of the real goods that count. 
This justifies the statement which ranks the soul as a God, 
and which is to be found in all religions. The actions that 
are concerned with the world outside, through the body, con- 
cern the body, and are performed for the welfare of the body, 
which is the enemy of the soul. They must be brought to a 
stop, if release from the body is the aim. Jainism is, however, 
a practical religion, and is well aware of the weakness of 
human nature. It does not demand from its followers that 
they should give up the world altogether at once. The Path is divided into two sections, the higher and more austere, and the lower and less trying. Saints tread the higher path ; laymen follow the one less austere. The lay- man’s path is the training ground for saints. A layman who has perfected himself in his duties and dharma (religion) becomes qualified to obtain admission in sainthood, with the next step in renunciation, the discarding of clothes.

The saint’s life is one of self-denial in the fullest sense of the term. He it is of whom it may be said in the Biblical language “ Foxes have holes and the birds of the air nests, but the son of man hath not where to lay his head.” As for 
food, lie is content in the belief that man shall not live by bread alone. He follows the example of the lilies of the field in regard to clothing ; they do not brother themselves about dress ; neither does he! Possessions he has already sold off and given away in charity. Relations, even wife and home, he regards as entanglements for the soul ; he hates his own life even, because ‘ whosoever shall save his life shall lose it.’ In a word, he takes leave of the world, and applies himself whole-heartedly to he rid of the body and matter, till one day lie is actually set free from the material bonds, when his real Divine Nature is restored to him, and he becomes fully, and in every part of his being. Divine. This is nirvana. The word in Jainism does not mean extinction, but the obtainment of the Divine Status. Those who have entered 
nirvana are now living in the enjoyment of Immortality, Omniscience, Uninterrupted, Uninterruptable, Undiminishing Bliss ; and Their number is legion.

This is not the time to enter into a proof of these statements, and the reader would soon get tired if I tried to do so. But he should read my books some of which have named above to understand these things clearly. I may say that large numbers of men have read these books and have been satisfied with the reasons and explanations given.

The point to be considered here is the effect of the jaina 
Doctrine on men. It will till the mind with a glad certainty 
about the future — the future is not only assured ; it is also 
glorious and good. He who believes in such a doctrine may 
say to himself : ‘ l may not only become God ; 1 am already 
a God 1 ’ What is lacking is not a thing from the outside, 
but the putting aside of the body and detachment from the 
outside. It is a state higher than that of hope, and far above 
mere optimism. It is a matter of scientific certainty which 
is absolute. If the individual does not avail himself of the 
Doctrine, and lives in the senses, he ruins himself, and defiles 
his sou), upon the conditions of which depend the conditions 
of his future life, virtue leading to happy and vice to un-happy future re-births. A man whose mind is saturated 
with the noble truth will long hesitate in the face of the most 
trying temptation before yielding to it. Probably he will 
prove his worth • on the occasion ; but if he yield to

temptation lie will soon repent and undo the harm done. The 
materialist, who only believes in a happy end in the grave 
after the lapse of the proverbial three score years and ten, has 
ugly blankness staring him in the lace, at all times He has 
nothing to look forward to in the future ; lie is here to make 
the most of the present moment. He has no fear of death, 
that is to say, of the effect of his actions on the soul after 
death, but he fears the man-made law.

Some spend their ingenuity in devising means of 
baffling the law. Some of these fail in their enter- 
prise and are caught. The number ol prisoners from 
different communities is a reliable indication of the effect of 
the community’s belief on the lives of its members. The 
number of prisoners from the Jaina Community is the 
smallest ; and the Jaina Community is the only one in which 
the true Doctrine as set out above is openly preached and 
practised. In no other religion the Doctrine is openly and 
clearly preached, and in none is the percentage of the 
number of law-breakers so small as in the case of the Jainas. 
The immediate effect of the jaina Culture would be, thus, a 
check on crime. As for the individual, it will till the mind 
with Life and Light, and raise him above the petty miudedness 
of worldliness.

With reference to the obligation to be good, it is to be 
remembered that Jainism does not seek the moral sanction 
in the dictum of a god or goddess whose pleasure is to be 
sought by the individual. Many peoples have committed 
terrible atrocities in the names of the gods themselves, in the 
belief that they were lighting the battles of their god, or 
gods, and whatever evil they wrought was sure to be 
expunged from their record. In Jainism there is no question 
of forgiveness of sins, and, consequently, any wrong done 
bar, to be paid for fully, unless the wrong-doer repent and 
himself undo the harm he has done, or the karma (action) is 
cancelled by Renunciation and world flight, in Ethics, the greatest stress is laid by Jainism on the principle of ahimsa which the gfeat Saintly Gandhi has 
employed of late in developing what he calls soul force. 
Ahimsa is really tiie characteristic feature of Jainism. It 
means : hurt no one in any way, even in thought. The Jaina saint actually blesses if any one causes him harm ; he will not resent if he is abused or slapped on the cheek. The advanced layman will give away his coat if any one claim it at law, and even some thing over and above it, if need be 
for its giving. The novitiate, of course, will defend himself 
if unjustly attacked ; because he has not made sufficient 
progress to be able to “sell off ail and give it away in chari- 
ty ” ; but lie does not remain stagnant, and hopes one day 
to attain to sainthood.

The effect of the adoption of the vow of ahimsa by the 
world will be the end of unholy rivalries, of the grab- 
bing of other peoples’ lands, of unrighteous wars, of 
mammon worship which itself is the parent of a thousand 
ills, and of all forms of racial and religious prejudices The 
whole world will be benefited. Even the animals will be 
protected and loved. Cruel sports, hunting, shooting, fishing 
and the like, will be abandoned ; and people will realize the 
fully and heartlessness of fashions which can only be gratified by the slaughter of animal life — for furs and plumes. To-day our statesmen have to rely upon treaties to secure even a temporary peace, and we all know the values of treaties and of the signatures which are deemed to authenticate them. 
The last great war clearly demonstrated how much binding force resided in such documents. The Jaina Culture changes the hearts of men ; and it does so on a rational basis, so that the individual himself becomes enthusiastic in being peaceful and good. Where the force of the moral law is 
made to abide in the will of a super-human agency, or where 
the logic of the commandment is obscure and vague, it is 
impossible to enlist individual enthusiasm in the service of the moral law. But it is all different in jainism. The Law and the reason for the Law are so clearly stated in it that the heart is at once fascinated by the Doctrine, and longs to 
follow in the Path of Those Holy Ones who have gone 
ahead. Back-sliding to a certain extent is unavoidable in all 
cases, but in jainism repentance is speedy, and proceeds from 
the heart.

Moral Law is as applicable to nations as it is to 
individuals ; and here also ahimsa comes to our aid to 
introduce an era of peace and plenty. If we disregard its 
golden rule, we must be prepared for the retribution which 
is sure to overtake us, howsoever slow in manifesting itself.

I think the point is clearly stated in the Bible when it is 
said : they who take to the sword shall perish with the 
sword. This applies to all un-moral and immoral actions. 
The East has been exploited and denuded of its wealth for 
centuries by the nations of the West, by means of trade and 
also in other ways not strictly in conformity with moral laws. 
But what is i lie effect of it to-day ? The West is suffering 
now itseh from linancial depression, and is face to face with 
want, in spite of all the ship-loads of gold and jewels that it 
brought away from the East. Only it has taken a few cen- 
turies to arrive al this unhappy condition. Great Empires 
have been built and destroyed in the past ages, as to-day. 
Their failure is always to be attributed to the failure of the 
emperors and kings to observe the rule of ahimsa, in all cases. 
Retributive justice takes diverse shapes in inflicting punish- 
ment on the wrong-daing nation. In some cases it is split up 
into diverse parts, which become imbued with hatred and fall 
lighting with one another. Sometimes the enemies combine, 
and, taking advantage of a weak moment, destroy the 
empire. But even if there were no enemies left to be 
dreaded, the law of the compensating balance by itself 
suffices to overthrow , the nation that lives in disregard of the 
golden rule of ahimsa . For the virus of the sentiments

JAINISM AND WORLD PROBLEMS.

07

which one displays and develops in his heart towards the 
conquered races is sure to infect its own people, in the 
fulness of time, and thereafter it is only a question of how 
long will it take to poison the entire organization. The West 
went out to conquer the East, fought and overpowered the 
weaker nations there. Lately the West was found to be 
indulging in an orgy of bloodshed on its own sacred soil : 
and to-day it is afraid that its nations are heading on stiaight 
for another war ! And, as already stated, the West has also 
been enriching itself at the expense of the East ; but to-day 
its nations are not able to pay their own debts 1

Let us now try to live on the lines of ahimsa which means 
universal love, and we shall soon find that the face of the 
world will be changed for the better. Unfortunately, the 
possession of power is burdened with a delusive curse. Its 
wielder is led to think that what he has obtained is the 
outcome of his own cleverness, and that he will always be 
equal to any emergency that may arise. But just in this 
lies the error. All the Caesars and Czars have committed 
it, at one time or another, and gone under, many of them 
without leaving a trace of themselves or of their empires. It 
is ahimsa which binds together humanity into one brother- 
hood, based on real love, and it is ahimsa which can help 
us at this stage, as nothing else can.

The Jaina Culture, I may point out, proceeds by removing 
from the human heart all tinge of selfish brutality and 
self-aggrandisement, so that the citizen cannot but love 
Peace, and insist on its being maintained. The jaina is 
not a coward and will tight for the protection of his hearth 
and home and ideals. Many jaina kings can he mentioned who have fought against powerful foes and overcome them. Only one name will here suffice for our purpose, that of Chandragupta, who was known to the Greeks as Sandracolas, and who defeated the Greek army in the fourth century B. C., His empire extended from the north of India to the Deccan in the South and was spread all over Upper India.

The heart can best be softened under the influence of 
education in childhood. Many people now-a-days think that 
religion ought not to be imparted to young boys and girls and 
that they should be left free to choose for themselves whether 
they will have a religion or not, and if so, which ? This is 
quite proper if the religion to be taught is something which 
the intellect is likely to rebel against, later on, on maturity 
of understanding ; for it is Ire t ter that the understanding be 
left untarnished and unwarped by stupid prejudices and 
illogical concepts, than that it should be stuffed with 
deliberate non-sense. But it is just as well to realize that 
once the age of childhood is passed one may not have the 
same opportunities and impressionability later in life. 
Don’t we teach alt other arts and sciences to our children r 
Why not, then, also teach them the science of salvation 
which will be their saviour here and hcreatter? Thejainas aim 
at imparting the truth in the most wholesome, that is to say, 
intellectual, manner to the boys and girls at school, so that 
by the time they are ready to take their share of the world’s 
responsibilities, they should be endowed with wisdom, and 
should have their conduct grounded on a living active basis of 
morality (ahimsa), fully alive to the valuations ot this worlds 
goods as well as of those of their spiritual nature. This will 
enable them to keep tliftir heads underail circumstances, and 
prevent barbarous land fanatical action. They will then be 
loving and sincere to themselves and others, and respect life 
and humanity all over the world. They alone will be able to 
lead a life of simplicity and kind-hearted sympathy. Those 
who are not endowed with the true cultural basis of ahimsa 
have no true understanding of the values of things spiritual 
and temporal, live only in the present, seeking to make the 
most ot the life that is opening out or lies before them, have 
no fear of the hereafter, and are easily turned into hypocrites, to conceal their real designs and greedy evil ambitions. 
They will deceive themselves and quite as easily others. 
The future of the world depends now more than ever before 
on our vouths, and it is imperative that they should have 
their minds saturated with all those noble ideas and ideals 
that will make it impossible for them to take the false step 
and the wrong view of things. Then alone we can hope to 
have Peace and Plenty in the World. Disarmament, or the 
reduction of armaments, is, no doubt, a great thing, and 
surely a step in the right direction, to reduce human burdens ; 
but I wish to lay emphasis on the fact that it will never put 
an end to war by itself, unless backed by the nobler impulses 
proceeding from a heart that is saturated, through and 
through, with ahimsa. There was a time when the armies 
were very limited in numbers, when there were no destruc- 
tive guns, when aeroplanes were unknown ; but even then 
nations fought with one another, as they do to-day. It is 
clear, then, that only those who believe in and practise 
ahimsa in their daily life will succeed in stopping warfare, 
not those whose hearts are set on wordlv goods and greatness 
and territory.

Ahimsa will also improve the relations between capital 
and labour by opening out the outlook of both the parties, 
and making them less egoistic and more obliging and 
generous. At present the world is being run by capitalists, 
in the interests of capitalism, and the capitalists are really in 
power in various ways, and influence things wherever and 
whenever they like. It is, of course, inevitable that in- 
equalities must prevail in the world ; and they have always 
prevailed in the world. What is objectionable is the ex- 
ploitation of the poor in the interests of the rich as a class, 
Ahimsa teaches us that human beings should be respected 
always as human beings, and not treated as the equivalents 
of dead force or as so many foot pounds of energy (work). 
To treat them as such would be as good as looking upon them as fodder for guns, which they are certainly forced to 
become during wars.

Machinery, I may point out in this connection, becomes 
one of the most objectionable of things when it exceeds the 
proper limits. Our present depression is entirely due to men 
having been displaced by machinery. No doubt, to a certain 
extent men have been displaced by girls in offices. But the 
principal cause of unemployment is machinery. Here aiso 
the law of retributive reaction is slow to be observed ; but it 
is sure and unrelenting in its operation. The man who 
starts a factory to-day, and boasts of his having found 
employment for so many thousands of men, is ignorant 
of how many times more that number will be rendered 
idle two hundred years hence by his example, if not actually 
by himself. In the Science of Salvation, machinery and the cultivation of materialistic sciences beyond the limit of prudent utility are condemned. The Founders of our Religions could also have given us a civilization equally (or even more dazzlingly) attractive than our own ; but they knew the consequences of the cult of Mammon. It is true that Materialism is to be credited with the many inventions which enable us to enjoy life with greater ease and comfort. But modern science must also he credited with the discovery of such things as dynamite, the bombshell, the long-range gun, the 
poison gas, and other forms of the weapons and means of 
destruction galore, that is, on a wholesale scale. And when 
all is said and done, the aim of life is not to dissipate the 
time in the pursuit of luxury and comfort, but to train oneself 
for the hardships of the Path that leads to Life Eternal, Joy 
Unabating, Knowledge Infinite, What value can we put 
upon the procuring of a few comforts for a short span of 
existence as compared with the things mentioned ? Science 
has given us a very comfortable conveyance, the motor car, 
that travels at times faster than the speed of a railway train. 
The motor car is a wonderful thing in more respects than one. For one thing it kills so many hundreds of thousands of human beings every year and causes injury to about ten times that number ! If we set these figures against those of 
men saved by the medical science with its latest methods and 
inventions, we shall be able to judge of the true merit of the 
claims of science. For one case that is cured in the above 
manner (with the new methods) hundreds of thousands of human being are killed on the roads, and maimed ! I would rather save the larger number any day, if I had to choose between them, and go without the thrills of rapid propulsion.

The Jaina Culture does not condemn all sciences en bloc ; only it limits the scientific impulse to the useful, and lays down the limits within which science should be given the free rein. For the true assessment of merit it is necessary 
that attention be directed to the tendency of a thing and not 
to the petty items of detail which may be quite acceptable on 
their individual merit. 1 am sure when we compare the 
lives led by our ancestors generally in the past with our own 
we cannot but arrive at the conclusion that they were far 
happier than ourselves, in spite of their lack of the latest 
methods and inventions. They aimed at simple living and high thinking ; we aim at high living, and end in low-thinking. And it is doubtful if we ever attain to high thinking. For all our thinking revolves round and is confined to two subjects, namely, acquisition and fashion. We have neither time nor inclination for the higher subject of the nature of 
the soul, and the future destiny of a living being. The 
subject is shunned by psychology and is outside the scope of 
the other sciences. In the ahimsa Culture the first and 
foremost place is assigned to the study of the Laws that 
govern the well-being of the soul, and to the soul-nature, or 
psychology of the soul. The effect is only too obvious to 
need specification or comment.

As for the problem of the unemployed, I have discussed 
one of the main causes of idleness in the above paragraphs. The employment of girls in offices where men used to be employed is naturally one of the causes that swell the numbers 
of the unemployed. And yet unmarried girls must exist 
somehow, and earn their living. The solution is again to be 
found in the simplification of life ; for if the standard of life 
is too high for them the poorer section of the people cannot 
but find it difficult to marry. I cannot help thinking that 
the proper place for a girl is the home which she should 
decorate and sweeten with her influence. The money that is 
earned in an office may bring some sort of independence, 
but it is altogether inadequate to take the place of the happiness that a married woman enjoys and has a right to enjoy in life. And, not to mince matters, sexual laxity, and with it hypocrisy, and what is worse, crimes (like abortion and infanticide) become things of daily occurrence. If any one 
will dwell upon the state of the mind of an unmarried girl who 
expects to become a mother, he will not fail to realize that it is simply impossible to picture to oneself fully the harrowing thoughts of horror and shame which she experiences and with which she is tormented for months running, without respite or relief. Those who understand the nature of the Spiritual Laws know how terrible will be the suffering to he endured 
in consequence of such thoughts, in the future re-incarnations 
of the soul. Surely, all this is avoidable ; if the society be 
founded upon a proper basis. In any case, the! earning of a 
small pittance as a typist, or clerk, in an office, is no adequate 
compensation for such suffering. The point is this that a girl 
that pushes a man out of an office and takes his place, 
deliberately reduces the number of eligible men for marriage, 
and very likely will herself be denied the prospect and joy of 
the connubial state. And since human nature will have its 
own way, it is idle to expect that all the marriageable unmarried will find it easy to practise celibacy, with the result 
that hypocrisy and crime, as described above, must become 
of frequent occurrence. In the culture of ahimsa it is regarded as less unsatisfactory to absorb the floating surplus 
of unmarried girls by allowing men to marry more than one 
woman. This will certainly give them an honourable position, and spare all the shame and hypocrisy and crime. Often 
the first step towards laxity is the one towards prostitution. 
The number of the unfortunate ones who have been forced into depravity and degradation is very large. But all this can be avoided — at least much of it. The opposition to (lie suggested remedy can only be a matter of sentiment. The 
practice lias the sanction of tune j even the Jewish Patriarchs 
married more than one woman. The good woman who thinks 
that it would be intolerable to her to share her husband with 
another woman little knows how often and with how many 
women she has already shared the gentleman, though 
she may be ignorant oi the sharing. Ahimsa aims at the 
greatest good of the greatest numbers, not at narrow-minded 
selfish legislation.

The remedy suggested will also solve the problem of 
maintaining racial efficiency. Men of science and learning 
are to-day disturbed over the? law that civilizations begin 
to die at the top, anti are trying to devise means to encourage 
increased child-bearing by the top-most classes of men. Of 
course, very few men can afford the luxury of having two 
wives at a time ; but there is little doubt that a sufficient 
number of such marriages will be contracted in every community to ensure the requisite standard of birth-rate amongst the most efficient peoples.

But I must not omit to say that the most important part of the Jaina Doctrine is its insistence on sacrifice, or self- denial. Our relations are all amiable and affectionate where they rest on the basis of sacrifice ; but they simply go awry 
when sought to be founded on ‘ rights.’ Sacrifice comes naturally easy to those who are imbued with the doctrine of ahimsa ; to others it is a tedious and unwholesome thing.

I am not going to give up my right is the view of him who is not imbued with the principle of ahimsa ;”I am here to give happiness to others is the actuating sub-conscious conviction oi the other. The point is forcibly brought to 
the mind of the marrying couples at the time of the wedding ceremony amongst the Aryan races in India. They are made to go round the Sacred Fire seven times. The ceremony is an essential element in a Jaina and Hindu marriage. The significance of this ceremony is symbolic, Agni, the god of fire, being really only a personification of the karma-consuming Fire of Renunciation. As the young couple go round the Sacred Fire it is impressed upon their minds at each circum-ambulation that not pleasure-seeking, but renunciation is the aim and ideal of life. This is done not once, nor twice, but seven times. The wedding ceremony is certainly the most befitting occasion for the injunction, since married life affords such sense-stealing intoxication to the participants that they are apt to disregard all higher ideals and injunctions tor the pleasure of each other’s contact and the love of the children that may be born.

With reference to the failure of the married life, Iwill 
say only this that we shall find here also ahimsa solving the 
problem, and bringing happiness and joy to the greatest 
numbers ol married couples even if not into every home. 
Let them only live on the principle of self-denial, as dis- 
tinguished from the legal right, and they will soon find that 
it will turn a desolation into a picturesque rose garden 
sooner than can be imagined. There are very few persons 
who have a real brutal nature ; and all the rest can and will 
respond to the sincere surrender of love in self-denial, proceed- 
ing from a heart that lias the understanding of its rights, but 
that, through love, deliberately chooses to forego them. The 
reaction to sacrifice is greater sacrifice (in response) by the 
other party, so that soon the equilibrium of balance is regained, 
and an increase of the affectionate esteem and sentiment is 
secured in the bargain ‘ On the other hand, where the threatened breach is sought to be bridged over with an 
argument as to the respective rights of the parties, it is in- 
evitable that misunderstandings should be more plentiful 
than otherwise, since neither of them is likely to have 
qualified himself or herself as a logician or judge. The advice of those who have understood the nature and value of the forces that are released and set in motion when ahimsa is resorted to is this, that if you are aiming at happiness for yourself and your partner in life then please leave the question of rights outside of your talk, but let ahimsa preside at your hearth and over the sentiments in the heart, and you will 
never lack anything, or be sorry for the choice.

It should not be forgotten that the woman is the foundation of social life. If the foundation is not truly laid the super structure, if raised, will always be unsteady, and will certainly come down with a crash one day. The woman is also the custodian of virtue and of individual and national morality. 
If she learns her own lesson, not from the teaching of the 
Science of Salvation, but from the example of lovely-limbed, elegantly dressed, but spiritually blind dancers and acrobats on the stage or the screen, she will be unfit to discharge her proper duties. As elsewhere, the effect of her lapses will take centuries to be perceived ; but the contamination is sure, and once the heart of a nation is infected with corruption and rot, nothing can avail as a thorough cleanser of the poison.

A word more about the unemployed before I sum up my conclusions. I think the government’s help will be better and more effective if land can be found for the idle workers of a nation than the dole.

In the light of the above observations, the problems facing society in various countries are easily solved. Let men treat their fellow-men as men and equals ; let politicians and statesmen give up a narrow patriotism, and extend the love 
of their hearts to their neighbours, near and remote ; let married people live on the basis of sacrifice and not on rights at law. And, lastly, let the government find plots of land for the unemployed and settle them thereon, providing at the same time suitable facilities for their marriage, and assisting 
them in building cheap homesteads. I have no doubt that if this is done in the true spirit of ahimsa very soon the evil aspect of things will be changed, and in place of desolation will appear beautiful enchanting homes where sweet little 
children will soon come to piav. The lack of means will be 
replaced with peace and plenty from the produce of the soil ; 
and the state will be saving all the enormous millions which 
it now spends in the shape of doles. As for the objection 
that marriage means the introduction of many hungry 
mouths in the world, it is always within the power of the parents to have as few children as they like, without offending against the moral code or the natural law. Ahimsa is the doctrine of renunciation, and renunciation of pleasure- seeking at certain times is an effective check on an increasing family. Jainism does not recommend the employment of any artificial checks that seek to limit the family, but not the lust of the parents, that is to say, which, in other words, leave them free to practise unrestrained indulgence at all times.

To conclude, the Jaina Doctrine is the sweetener of life in every department of human activity. Whosoever will put it into practice will enrich himself with Spiritual Goods, and will be able to build his house on a solid foundation, which will withstand the severest attacks of ill-luck. Ahimsa is the back -bone of the social order, and its disregard is attended by the gravest of disorders. The world has been living in defiance of ahimsa and Universal Love for centuries, and rot has now begun to eat into its vitals. Let men only practise the ahimsa dharma (the Religion of Universal Love) in their daily living, and it will suffice to change disease into health, ugliness into beauty, poverty into plenty, depression into prosperity, and fear into confidence and love !