I learned about this model for the first time from Rory Sutherland, who spoke to the irrational nature of our minds and how biases come into play when we assess products. This model suggests that products in their very design, but also in their marketing, need to push beyond the basics. Those basics are described as threshold attributes, which are table stakes to buy, and performance-based attributes, which may be valued features. In order to elicit a high level of product satisfaction, there needs to be a level of excitement to the product function. The example Rory gave was when the iPhone first launched, the folks at Nokia were not particularly worried as their phones had a significantly longer battery life. But who can replicate the joy and satisfaction of clicking through a native app, snapping a selfie with the sleek casing on show, or lovely sound of tapping that streamlined keyboard? The iPhone was designed to spark delight with every use. And the rest is history.