An excellent comment. Though I haven’t read Pell consistently enough to know whether the point about despairing about Hillary’s loss is actually deserved. The point about the definition of bias is very good. But what about the origin of a bias? I think that is Pell’s point, even if he didn’t really state it clearly. All bias has an origin. An observer can start with no bias, but end up with one due to observed patterns that produce expectations. Without forming expectations based on patterns, our thinking is less advanced than that of a fish.