Black Holes- Composition and Roles In The Universe
To fully appreciate the article below you are referred to the different publications on Medium by the Author regarding the nature and properties of the strings and singularities that construct the entire universe. The book also deals with many other aspects of physics.
24.2) Black Holes
According to current literature
Einstein’s theory of gravitation is expressed in one deceptively simple-looking tensor equation (tensors are a generalization of scalars and vectors), which expresses how a mass determines the curvature of space-time around it and the curvature tells mass how to move. The solutions to that equation yield one of the most fascinating predictions, namely the existence of black holes. According to this prediction if an object is sufficiently dense, it will collapse upon itself forming a dense matter surrounded by an event horizon from which nothing can escape. The name “black hole,” which was coined by astronomer John Wheeler in 1969, refers to the fact that light cannot escape such an object. Karl Schwarzschild was the first person to note this phenomenon in 1916, but at that time, it was considered mostly to be a mathematical curiosity.
The first picture of a black hole by NASA- 2019
There are many questions regarding the origin, composition, roles and fates of the black holes in the working of the Universe. Some of these are:
- What is a black hole and how is it formed?
- What are they composed of?
- Do black holes produce thermal radiation?
- Does this radiation contain information about their inner structure, as suggested by gauge — gravity duality, or not, as implied by Hawking’s original calculation? If not, and black holes can evaporate away, what happens to the information stored in them (since Quantum Mechanics does not provide for the destruction of information)? Or does the radiation stop at some point leaving black hole remnants?
- Is there another way to probe their internal structure somehow, if such a structure even exists?
▪️The Big Bang
The Big Bang, the birth of the Universe, was a singular event. All of the matter of the Universe was concentrated at a single point known as the initial back hole.
A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing (not even electromagnetic radiation such as visible light) can escape from inside it.
The theory of General Relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass will deform spacetime to form a black hole. The boundary of the region from which no escape is possible is called the event horizon. Although the event horizon has an enormous effect on the fate and circumstances of an object crossing it, no locally detectable features appear to be observed. In many ways, a black hole acts like an ideal black body, as it reflects no light. Moreover, Quantum Field Theory in curved spacetime predicts that event horizons emit Hawking radiation, with the same spectrum as a black body of a temperature inversely proportional to its mass. This temperature is on the order of billions of kelvin for black holes of stellar mass, making it essentially impossible to observe.
According to our postulations
▪️Black hole composition
The spacetime matrix is the platform in which the physical Universe manifests itself. We speculate that time started with the unfolding of the spacetime matrix or due to an initial Big Bang. Such an event led to the formation of the four quantized spacetime dimensions with the forward arrow of time. The spacetime matrix has a balloon-like/doughnut-like or some other positively curved geometry.
Within the spacetime matrix, different levels of loose singularities interact with its composing spacetime particles (SPs). Dense cluster of singularities forms the nuclei of black holes. Each black hole’s Nuclei consists of a pair of interacting CW and CCW spinning balls of singularities attracting partnering strings of relevant helicity in orbital momentum. Their interactions with the local fabric of spacetime cause the composing SPs to collapse unto themselves as they pass their energy-momentum to the formed black hole. Chapter 4 of the book explains the nature and composition of the Spacetime Particles and how they get interwoven to form the Spacetime Matrix (the assumed vacuum).
The continuous spin of the composing singularities and the extreme distortion in the local fabric of spacetime triggers the flow of dense energy-momentum towards a black hole.
▪️The Event horizon
The event horizon is the region of spacetime around a black hole from which nothing (not even light) can escape, composed of coupled strings (electromagnetic radiation) in orbital momentum driven by the two balls of singularities.
- Formation of the event horizon
- A pair of a dense cluster of spinning CW and CCW singularities and the orbiting right handed or left handed strings respectively form a structure similar to a massive interacting electron and positron. As some of opposite helicity strings interact they get coupled and assume orbital momentum around the black hole nucleus that form the event horizon.
▪️Increase in mass of a black hole: the accretion process
All fermion particles singularities that enter the area of no return (the event horizon) join the nucleus of the black hole and their strings are added to its mass. Similarly, the coupled strings that compose electromagnetic radiation join the event horizon as they cross the points of no return, i.e. they assume orbital path. Stars in the vicinity of a black hole are at the risk of being broken up and absorbed by the black hole due to the extreme curvature of the surrounding Spacetime. The accretion process leads to an increase in its gravitational field density. In this sense, a stable star and its trajectory need to stay at a sufficient distance from its controlling black hole to avoid being broken up and swallowed by it. The increase in the mass of a black hole continues as long as the level of absorbed subatomic particles exceeds the emitted Hawking radiation.
All supermassive black holes in the centers of galaxies appear to have periods when they swallow matter from their close surroundings. That’s the conclusion reached by British and Dutch astronomers from their research with ultra-sensitive radio telescopes in a well-studied region of the Universe. They publish their findings in two articles in the international journal Astronomy & Astrophysics.
Hawking radiation is due to the continuous coupling and decoupling of orbiting strings as they get driven by the black hole two interacting balls of singularities. Some of the coupled strings, with the right trajectory, manage to escape the event horizon as Hawking radiation. The greater the density of the interacting pair of singularities, the less likely the orbiting strings will manage to escape the event horizon.
▪️Fabric of spacetime adjacent to a black hole
On approaching the event horizon, the gravitational field density increases with the increased fabric of spacetime curvature. Photons passing through follow the curvature of the relevant Spacetime.
With increased photons’ curvature, a greater percentage of them end up in the region of spacetime where their momentum turns from linear to angular as they join the event horizon energy. At this stage, physicists say “the gravitational density becomes so strong that not even light can escape from it”.
▪️Quantum Mechanics within a black hole
The uncoupled strings orbiting each ball of singularities represent its wave function. At the points where they interact, some of the orbiting strings get coupled and decoupled, generating a dynamic relationship with its event horizon.
- The radii of a black hole is governed by the centripetal force law:
- F = E / r = mc² / r
- Where F is the centripetal force reflecting the number of the composing singularities, and mc² / r represents energy divided by radius of the orbiting strings. The radius of the event horizon is subject to the interacting two balls of singularities’ dynamical interactions that make up the nucleus of a black hole.
- Current laws of physics produce zeros and infinity values at the black hole level. Our proposed sub-Planck units of measurements associated with a spacetime particle cease to apply due to the collapse in the fabric of spacetime beyond the event horizon.
- Since the properties of the two fundamental particles and the centripetal force law are invariant, the relevant math would apply to dark matter and black holes. This rationale would assist in the derivations of new laws of physics that govern the Quantum Mechanics of dark matter and black holes.
▪️Absence of electromagnetic field
The interacting two spinning balls of singularities represent massive moving charged particles. However, they don’t trigger the formation of an electromagnetic field, due to the absence of SPs between the spinning singularities and the event horizon. The existence of SPs is essential for the formation of electromagnetic fields as explained in chapter 21 of the book. This prediction is supported by the quote below.
“For the first time, scientists have studied the magnetic field of a black hole inside the Milky Way in multiple wavelengths — and found that it doesn’t conform to what we previously thought. According to researchers at the University of Florida and the University of Texas at San Antonio, the black hole called V404 Cygni’s magnetic field is much weaker than expected — a discovery that means we may have to rework our current models for black hole jets.”
▪️Relationships between black holes & the masses of galaxies
There is a black hole at the center of each galaxy to keep stars in their orbits around it. The gravitational field of a black hole and the aggregate mass of a galaxy becomes proportional to each other over time. A black hole with a relatively small mass has an insufficient gravitational force to keep distant heavenly bodies within its orbit. On the other hand, a massive black hole keeps trapping objects that enter its gravitational field.
▪️The triggering mechanism for the first Big Bang
It is futile to speculate the mechanism responsible for triggering the starting point. It may have all started with the unfolding of the spacetime platform or a Big Bang that formed the spacetime matrix. The formation of the spacetime platform is a prerequisite for the Universe manifestation as the aggregate excitation of the composing SPs. Nothing can exist outside the spacetime matrix.
We speculate that subsequent Big Bangs are regularly taking place in the Universe. It is part of a continuous renewal process that leads to the formation of new galaxies. The triggering mechanism for a Big Bang may be when two spinning balls of singularities get massive enough to smash into each other. It may also be due to collisions between black holes. A massive Big Bang leads to the release of large clusters of singularities in different configurations leading to the creation of new galaxies, in addition to releasing great amounts of energy.
▪️Information at the black hole level
The number and types of the composing singularities and strings of a black hole represent the stored information. There are equal numbers of each type of singularities’ spin and each strings’ helicity. This rationale is supported the prevailing global symmetry that governs the working of the Universe
Qubits from its
Since singularities and strings are the source of information and they construct a black hole, then information is conserved. The information associated with each black hole is represented by the mass of the galaxy it controls, the Hawking radiation it emits, and the gravitational field associated with its mass. The subatomic particles absorbed by a black hole get annihilated into singularities and strings. They cease to supply information to the continuously generated a global present-time frame per microsecond that represent the observed universe. A black hole is a macro computational system since it controls its internal Quantum Mechanics and the orbiting stars within its gravitational field. The orbit of the stars around the black holes gets manifested by the global present-time frames. In this sense, the global present-time frames do contain black hole information. They reflects its position, volume, and mass.