Eye on Extremism, October 19, 2016

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Reuters: U.S. Expects Islamic State To Wield Chemical Weapons In Mosul Fight

“The United States expects Islamic State to use crude chemical weapons as it tries to repel an Iraqi-led offensive on the city of Mosul, U.S. officials say, although adding that the group’s technical ability to develop such weapons is highly limited. U.S. forces have begun to regularly collect shell fragments to test for possible chemical agents, given Islamic State’s use of mustard agent in the months before Monday’s launch of the Mosul offensive, one official said. In a previously undisclosed incident, U.S. forces confirmed the presence of a sulfur mustard agent on Islamic State munition fragments on Oct. 5, a second official said. The Islamic State had targeted local forces, not U.S. or coalition troops.”

CNN: New York College Student Killed After Joining ISIS In Syria

“Samy El-Goarany allegedly told his parents he was going to school in New York — but instead flew to Turkey and crossed into Syria. After leaving in January last year, the 24-year-old was killed in November. An unknown person later messaged his family with a photo of a handwritten note from him, court documents show. ‘If you’re reading this then know that I’ve been killed in battle and am now with our Lord InshaAllah,’ the note said. ‘I want you to know how much I love you … but I don’t think words will ever be enough to describe it.’ Federal prosecutors say the man responsible for his travel to Syria is Ahmed Mohammed el Gammal. They are charging him with providing material support to ISIS and helping Goarany join the terror group in Syria.”

The New York Times: Retaking Mosul From ISIS May Pale To What Comes Next

“The Iraqi military’s operation to retake the northern city of Mosul after more than two years of Islamic State occupation could require months, even with American help. But the recapture may turn out to be the easy part. If history is a guide, vast parts of Mosul, once Iraq’s №2 city with about two million inhabitants, could be left in smoldering ruins by retreating or die-hard Islamic State fighters who may use remaining civilians as shields and booby-trap entire neighborhoods with improvised bombs. Just clearing these explosives could take months or years. Three other important Iraqi cities recaptured from the Islamic State — Ramadi, Tikrit and Falluja — were left in varying degrees of devastation.”

Reuters: Shi’ite Militias Say Will Support Iraqi Army Offensive On Mosul

“A Shi’ite paramilitary force said late on Tuesday it will support the Iraqi army’s offensive on Mosul, Islamic State’s last major stronghold in Iraq, raising the risk of sectarian strife in the mainly Sunni region. The Popular Mobilization Force (PMF), a coalition of mostly Iranian-trained militias, said it will back government forces advancing toward Tal Afar, about 55 kilometers (34 miles) west of Mosul. Tal Afar’s population was a mix of Sunni and Shi’ite ethnic Turkmens until Shi’ites fled the town after Islamic State’s ultra-hardline Sunni militants took over the region in 2014, declaring a ‘caliphate’ over parts of Iraq and neighboring Syria. The PMF also said it will be supporting the armed forces advancing into the city of Mosul from the west.”

Newsweek: Not All U.K. Muslims Are Against The Prevent Counter-Terrorism Strategy

“I have lost count the number of articles, academic blogs and assumptions that are made about Prevent, in particular that the ‘Muslim community’ opposes it. Not only is the use of the term ‘Muslim community’ problematic — ignoring the rich diversity in thought, belief and practice of Britain’s three million Muslims — but it is also simply not true that all Muslims do oppose Prevent. The at time lazy and uninformed debate around Prevent is in part a result of our post-truth society, where, as Katharine Viner, editor of The Guardian, once wrote, we should be concerned about how technology and social media now has the ability to disrupt the truth. Does the truth matter anymore, she argues, where ‘outlandish claims are published on the basis of flimsy evidence,’ and when ‘a fact begins to resemble whatever you feel is true it becomes very difficult for anyone to tell the difference between facts that are true and ‘facts’ that are not.’”

BBC: Collapse Of IS Will Lead To Attacks, Say EU Officials

“Senior EU officials have warned that the threat of terrorism could increase as jihadist group Islamic State (IS) faces a major offensive. EU Counter-Terrorism Co-ordinator Gilles de Kerchove said IS would seek to ‘reassert itself’ by encouraging existing cells or individuals to carry out attacks. Europol director Rob Wainwright said this was a ‘crucial time’. Military pressure had, in the past, ‘caused IS to lash out,’ he added. The warnings came as the EU’s security commissioner, Julian King, told German daily Die Welt that ‘the recapture of the city of Mosul, the northern Iraqi stronghold of IS, could lead to dangerous IS fighters returning to Europe’. Mr de Kerchove said Europe would struggle to ‘digest’ the 1,500 and 2,000 ‘foreign fighters’ who might return to Europe if IS was driven out of its strongholds in Mosul and Raqqa. He said that number could also include the families of European jihadists and radicalised children who had grown up under IS control.”

The Daily Beast: Italian Mob Trades Weapons For Looted Art From ISIS In Libya

“On Monday, Interior Minister Angelino Alfano confirmed La Stampa’s reporting, adding that the Italian government is acutely aware the illegal ring of art-for-arms funds jihadi terrorism in nearby Libya. ‘We have studied the ‘GDP of terror’ and we know that one of the components is the commercialization of stolen art,’ he told reporters. ‘The stolen artifacts feed ISIS and contribute to the GDP of terror.’ The Italian criminal gangs reportedly acquire the artifacts from jihadi tomb raiders in Libya in exchange for a wide range of weaponry, including Kalashnikov rifles and rocket-propelled grenades that the Camorra have in great supply from a long-standing arms-trafficking racket with Russia, Moldova, and the Ukraine. The weapons are either smuggled back to Libya on the same container ships or left in Europe to be picked up by foreign fighters here.”

Associated Press: Prosecutors: 4 Held In Belgium On Terrorism Charges

“Belgian prosecutors say four people have been charged with participating in the activities of a terrorist organization, including by funding it and recruiting people to fight with the Islamic State group in Syria. The Federal Prosecutor’s Office says in a statement that the charges came after 15 homes were searched Tuesday in the Flanders cities of Antwerp, Ghent and Deinze. Prosecutors say no arms or explosives were found. Prosecutors say 15 people were questioned, of whom four were charged. The prosecutors say there was no established link with the suicide bomb attacks, claimed by Islamic State, which killed 32 victims in Brussels in March. No further details have been released.”

United States

Reuters: U.S. And Allies Meet In Geneva To Flesh Out Syria Plan

“The United States and allies from the Middle East and Europe met in Geneva on Tuesday to coordinate efforts toward a new ceasefire in Syria, senior U.S. officials and Western diplomats said, as Russia unexpectedly announced it had halted air strikes over the besieged city of Aleppo. A Western diplomat said ‘like-minded nations’ had agreed to create a ‘working group to see how to see how we could separate (Al Qaeda-linked group) Nusra from the moderate opposition. The first meeting is today in Geneva.’ The meeting was made up of experts from the United States, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, France, Turkey and Jordan. The talks did not include Russia, which on Monday announced an eight-hour pause in Russian and Syrian government air attacks on the city of Aleppo on Thursday to allow civilians and rebels to leave the city and then on Tuesday suddenly halted all air strikes, two days ahead of time.”

Syria

Reuters: Syria Says U.S. Plans Safe Passage For Militants From Mosul Into Syria

“The Syrian army on Tuesday accused the U.S.-led coalition of planning to allow Islamic State militants to flee Iraq’s city of Mosul across the Syrian border, saying it would confront this attempt with all its means. A statement by the army command said the plan entailed securing roads and safe passages into Syria to allow the militants to consolidate their presence and create ‘new battleground realities’ in eastern Syria. ‘Any attempt to cross the border is an attack on the sovereignty of Syria… and would be dealt with with all forces available,’ the army statement released on state media said.”

USA Today: State Media: Russian And Syrian Warplanes Stop Bombing Aleppo

“Russian and Syrian warplanes stopped airstrikes on Aleppo on Tuesday in preparation to allow civilians and rebels to leave the besieged city, Russian state media reported. The strikes were halted from 10 a.m. to ‘introduce a humanitarian pause’ on Thursday, Russian Defense Minister Sergey Shoigu said. The temporary truce between 8 a.m. and 4 p.m. local time Thursday is also aimed at allowing the ill or wounded to be evacuated from rebel-held eastern parts of Aleppo, Russia said. Civilians will be able to leave the city through six routes and militants through two routes, Russia’s Tass news agency reported. It comes after the United States and Britain said Sunday that they were considering sanctions against Syria and its ally Russia over the situation in Aleppo. Syria and Russia do not appear to have discussed the halting of airstrikes with the U.S. and the United Kingdom.”

Reuters: Syria Rebels Reject Aleppo Withdrawal After Russian Statement

“Syrian rebels said on Tuesday they rejected any withdrawal of fighters from Aleppo after Russia announced a halt in air raids which it said was designed to allow insurgents to leave and to separate moderate fighters from extremist militants. ‘The factions completely reject any exit — this is surrender,’ said Zakaria Malahifji, the political officer of the Aleppo-based Fastaqim group. Al-Farouk Abu Bakr, an Aleppo commander in the powerful Islamist group Ahrar al-Sham, said the rebels would fight on. ‘When we took up arms at the start of the revolution to defend our abandoned people we promised God that we would not lay them down until the downfall of this criminal regime,’ he said, referring to President Bashar al-Assad’s government.”

BBC: Syria First Lady Asma Al-Assad ‘Rejected Offer Of Asylum’

“Syria’s first lady has said she rejected a deal to offer her safe passage out of the war-torn nation in order to stay by her husband’s side. Asma al-Assad revealed she believed those offering her a new home were trying to undermine her husband Bashar’s presidency. In an interview with Russian state-backed television, she refused to say who made the offer. Mrs Assad also thanked Russia for its ‘noble efforts’ supporting the regime. Mrs Assad, whose social media pages are filled with pictures of her meeting orphans and the injured, told Rossiya 24: ‘I’ve been here since the beginning and I never thought of being anywhere else at all. Yes I was offered the opportunity to leave Syria or rather to run from Syria. These offers included guarantees of safety and protection for my children and even financial security.”

Iraq

Reuters: Islamic State Said To Use Human Shields As Coalition Advances On Mosul

“Residents of Mosul said Islamic State was using civilians as human shields as Iraqi and Kurdish forces captured outlying villages in their advance on the jihadists’ stronghold. The leader of Islamic State was reported to be among thousands of hardline militants still in the city, suggesting the group would go to great lengths to repel the coalition. With attacking forces still between 20 and 50 km (12–30 miles) away, residents reached by telephone said more than 100 families had started moving from southern and eastern suburbs most exposed to the offensive to more central parts of the city. Islamic State militants were preventing people fleeing Mosul, they said, and one said they directed some towards buildings they had recently used themselves.”

The New York Times: After Losses In Syria And Iraq, ISIS Moves The Goal Posts

“Islamic State leaders had long promised their followers an apocalyptic battle — foretold, some believe, by the Prophet Muhammad — in an otherwise nondescript village they controlled in northern Syria. But the warriors of the self-declared caliphate lost the village, Dabiq, in just a few hours over the weekend as Syrian rebels, backed by Turkey, closed in. To soften the symbolic blow, the Islamic State switched rhetorical gears, declaring that the real Dabiq battle would come some other time. The about-face was part of a larger repositioning as the Islamic State loses ground, not only in Syria but also in Iraq, where forces backed by the United States began a drive on Monday to oust the group from the sprawling and strategically vital city of Mosul. On the defensive in both countries, the group has been making preparations for retrenchment and survival.”

CNN: Mosul Offensive: Retaking City Will Take 2 Months, Says Peshmerga General

“The battle to recapture Mosul from ISIS could take two months, a Peshmerga military commander told CNN on Tuesday, the second day of the long-awaited offensive to liberate Iraq’s second city. Sirwan Barzani, a brigadier general, said it would likely take two weeks for advancing forces to enter the city. Iraq’s leaders have said that only Iraqi government troops and national police officers will be allowed to do so amid fears of sectarian retribution, he said. A 94,000-member coalition of Iraqi security forces, Kurdish Peshmerga allies and thousands of irregulars from various minorities are involved in the operation to free Mosul from more than two years of ISIS rule.”

Turkey

Reuters: Turkish Police Kill Suspected Islamic State Suicide Bomber: Anadolu

“Turkish police shot dead a suspected Islamic State militant who was believed to be planning a suicide bomb attack in the capital Ankara, state-run Anadolu Agency reported on Wednesday. A counter terror squad had tracked the suspect to the ninth floor of a building on the outskirts of Ankara, where he was killed in a gunfight at around 3 am (0000 GMT) after opening fire in response to a police call to surrender. Police found explosive materials at the scene and Governor Ercan Topaca told reporters there were suspicions that the suspect planned to target public ceremonies in the capital, Anadolu reported. It said the man was registered in the southeastern city of Diyarbakir and was born in 1992. Having received intelligence that militants were planning attacks in the capital, the Ankara governor’s office on Monday banned public meetings and marches until the end of November.”

Reuters: Turkey’s EU Minister Says Migrant Readmissions May End Without Visa Deal

“The European Union should implement visa-free travel for Turks by the end of the year and stop insisting Turkey change its anti-terrorism laws or Ankara may cancel its side of a deal to readmit illegal migrants, Turkey’s EU minister told Reuters. Turkey agreed in March to stop illegal migrants from crossing into Greece in exchange for financial aid for those in its care, the promise of visa-free travel for its citizens to much of the EU, and accelerated EU membership talks. But there has been deadlock over the plan to grant Turks visa-free access to Europe by October. Brussels first wants Turkey to change its anti-terrorism laws, which it deems too broad and potentially oppressive for European standards.”

Afghanistan

Reuters: Some Taliban Officials Say Secret Afghan Peace Talks Held In Qatar

“Two Taliban officials said on Tuesday that the militant movement held informal, secret peace talks with the Afghan government earlier this month in Qatar, but a Taliban spokesman denied they took place. The Afghan Taliban officials, based in Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, speaking on condition of anonymity, said the talks had yielded little. They added that U.S. officials were part of the process, although they did not specify whether they were directly involved in the talks. Afghan and U.S. officials demanded that the Taliban declared a ceasefire, laid down arms and started formal peace talks, said the UAE-based official. In response, he said, Taliban officials demanded that the group be officially recognized as a political movement, its leaders’ names be removed from a UN blacklist and all prisoners be released.”

Voice Of America: Taliban Formally Denies Reports Of Meetings With Afghan Government

“The Taliban has formally refuted reports of secret meetings with Afghan government officials, insisting there has been no change in the group’s policy for holding peace negotiations. The Guardian newspaper, in an exclusive article published Tuesday, quoted anonymous Afghan officials and sources within the Taliban as confirming at least two interactions between the warring sides in September and early October. It said the meetings took place in Doha, capital of the Gulf state of Qatar, where Taliban political negotiators are based. A source within the Afghan government in Kabul also confirmed the meetings to VOA, without sharing further details.”

Yemen

The New York Times: Short-Term Cease-Fire In Yemen Appears Likely

“War-torn Yemen took a tenuous step toward a short-term cease-fire on Tuesday, as the rebels who control the country’s capital said they would hold their fire if a military coalition led by Saudi Arabia stopped its attacks and lifted its blockade of rebel-held territory. The statement by the rebels, known as the Houthis, was their first official reaction to a 72-hour cease-fire that the United Nations said was supposed to start on Wednesday. Secretary of State John Kerry, who has been working to find a political solution to the country’s 19-month-old conflict, welcomed the cease-fire announcement. Mr. Kerry noted in a statement that a ‘peaceful resolution of this conflict requires compromises and commitments by everyone.’”

Reuters: Yemen Houthis Back Truce, U.N., U.S. Call For Aid To Flow

“Yemen’s Houthi-run administration welcomed a 72-hour ceasefire starting on Wednesday intended to allow aid to reach areas cut off by months of fighting and in dire humanitarian need. In its first statement on the truce, a governing council composed of the Iranian-allied Houthi group and powerful local allies demanded a Saudi-backed Arab coalition end military attacks and lift curbs on air, sea and land transport. A ceasefire between warring factions will begin at 2359 local time (2059 GMT) on Wednesday, the United Nations said on Monday, raising hopes of an end to a war that has killed thousands of civilians and left people starving. The council announced its ‘positive engagement’ with the ceasefire plan, and added Yemen needed an immediate, lasting and comprehensive truce without conditions, including what it called an end to the blockade on the Yemeni people.”

Associated Press: UN Announces Agreement On 72-Hour Yemen Cease-Fire

“The warring parties in Yemen have agreed to a 72-hour cease-fire that will take effect shortly before midnight Wednesday, the U.N. special envoy to Yemen said. Special Envoy Ismail Ould Cheikh Ahmed said he hopes the temporary truce can lead to ‘permanent and lasting end to the conflict.’ Ahmed said in a statement Monday that he received assurances from all parties to the conflict o cease hostilities at 11:59 p.m. local time on Wednesday for an initial period of 72 hours that is subject to renewal. The warring factions agreed to follow the conditions of a temporary April cease-fire agreement, he said. The agreement requires them to ‘to allow free and unhindered access for humanitarian supplies and personnel’ to all parts of Yemen, he said.”

Saudi Arabia

Newsweek: Why An Iran-Saudi Arabia Conflict Is More Likely Today Than Ever Before

“Much has been written about the cold war between Saudi Arabia and the Islamic Republic of Iran. Though this deadly strategic competition has not caused the sweeping disorder in which the Middle East finds itself, it has widened and deepened it. While both countries have always preferred to do battle by proxy — because they have more to lose than gain from a direct fight — relations have reached a boiling point, raising the possibility, for the first time in the history of their antagonistic relationship, of the cold war turning hot. This has less to do with the intensifying vitriol the Saudi and Iranian leaderships have hurled at one another recently (although that is surely of concern) and more with objective trends that go beyond sudden emotional bursts.”

The New York Times: Saudi Arabia Executes A Prince Convicted In A Fatal Shooting

“Saudi Arabia on Tuesday executed a member of the royal family for murder, the first time in four decades it had done so, after he was convicted of shooting another man to death during a brawl. Prince Turki bin Saud bin Turki bin Saud al-Kabeer was put to death in the capital, Riyadh, according to a report by the Saudi state news service. While the report did not detail the method used, most death penalties in Saudi Arabia are carried out by beheading in a public square. The rare event rocketed around the kingdom’s social media networks, with some Saudis saying they never imagined such a thing would happen and others arguing that it showed the quality of their justice system, which follows a strict interpretation of Shariah law and is often criticized by human rights groups and Western governments for what they consider harsh and arbitrary punishments.”

Middle East

The Times Of Israel: 3 Lightly Hurt In Rock-Throwing Attacks In Jerusalem

“Three people were lightly injured in two rock-throwing attacks in East Jerusalem on Tuesday, police said. In one incident, two people were lightly hurt when stones were thrown at an Israeli car in the A-Tur neighborhood of East Jerusalem, police said. The two were treated at the scene by Magen David Adom rescue personnel. Security forces later arrested a 19-year-old East Jerusalem resident suspected of being behind the attack, a police spokesperson said. While searching for the culprit behind the attack, police officers also arrested a 15-year-old resident of A-Tur after he too was seen throwing rocks at cars traveling along the road, police said.”

Nigeria

Voice Of America: Malnutrition Spikes In North Cameroon Amid Boko Haram Conflict

“Aid agencies are sounding the alarm about severe food insecurity throughout northern Cameroon as a result of the Boko Haram conflict. This month, 70 children suffering from malnutrition have needed medical attention at the Minawao refugee camp. However, says nurse Irene Mbarga, the hospital has limited resources to treat them. The families are not able to provide enough food, she says, and malnutrition is making other health conditions worse. Mbarga told VOA that about three quarters of the cases the hospital sees are related to malnutrition. When the hospital is running short on supplies, she says, the staff can only provide first aid.”

Associated Press: Chibok Leader: 100-Plus Girls Unwilling To Leave Boko Haram

“Nigeria’s government is negotiating the release of another 83 of the Chibok schoolgirls taken in a mass abduction two-and-a-half years ago, but more than 100 others appear unwilling to leave their Boko Haram Islamic extremist captors, a community leader said Tuesday. The unwilling girls may have been radicalized by Boko Haram or are ashamed to return home because they were forced to marry extremists and have babies, chairman Pogu Bitrus of the Chibok Development Association told The Associated Press in a telephone interview. Bitrus said the 21 Chibok girls freed last week in the first negotiated release between Nigeria’s government and Boko Haram should be educated abroad, because they will probably face stigma in Nigeria. The girls and their parents were reunited Sunday and are expected to meet with Nigeria’s President Muhammadu Buhari on Tuesday or Wednesday, Bitrus said.”

Germany

Deutsche Welle: Germany And EU Talk Tough On Returning ‘IS’ Fighters

“As part of his first visit to Berlin after becoming EU security commissioner on September 19, Julian King toured the Joint Terrorism Defense Center in Berlin. And terrorism — particularly the prospect of European ‘Islamic State’ (IS) fighters from Syria and Iraq coming back to the continent — was at the center of his subsequent talks with German Interior Minister Thomas de Maiziere. ‘We need to redouble our efforts to deal with that threat, and in particular we need to redouble our efforts on prevention to dissuade people from going in the first place to support Daesh,’ King said, using the Arabic acronym for IS. ‘We need to redouble the work we’re doing to strengthen controls on our borders, including for EU citizens.’ In an interview with ‘Die Welt’ newspaper ahead of his meeting with de Maiziere, King had warned that if Iraqi troops retook the IS stronghold of Mosul, European IS fighters could return and launch terrorist attacks.”

ISIS

Al-Ain: Mosul: ISIS Sets Its Financial Documents On Fire

“Eyewitnesses confirmed that ISIS militants eliminated and burned files containing information about the group’s financial transactions and its assets in underground banks. This indicates ISIS’s eagerness not to leave a paper trail revealing its financial dealings, tax collection or business accounts, so as to prevent the tracking of the group’s funds or its methods of funding. Local sources in Nineveh province reported that “ISIS members began to burn files connected to its financial and commercial transactions as well as those related to tax collection. They torched the documents in the Municipality of Mosul building near al-Hurriyah Bridge in the Bab al-Tub district, in the center of the province.” The sources added that the organization deliberately started burning {financial} files in the Hisbah centers and the Sharia courts belonging to it in Mosul, for fear they would fall into the hands of Iraqi security forces which have launched an operation to liberate the city.”

Alalam: Clashes Between ISIS Militants Over The Organization’s Money

“According to a local source in Nineveh province, violent clashes erupted on Monday between ISIS’s so-called “Battalion of al-Usrah” and the “police” forces. The exchange of fire took place near the offices of what the terror group calls “Finance House” in downtown Mosul. The source stressed that the clashes broke out as the two sides were attempting to gain control of the group’s funds, adding that “20 armed men belonging to ISIS police forces travelling in five vehicles tried to storm the headquarters of the Finance House in central Mosul. This site is guarded by militants of “Jaish al-Usrah”, considered to be the group’s elite unit, under the direct command of the organization’s leader, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi.”

Muslim Brotherhood

Shorouk News: Egypt: Muslim Brotherhood Asset Freeze Committee Rejects Grievance Filed By Company Accused Of Affiliation With The Group

“A judicial source disclosed that the Muslim Brotherhood Asset Freeze Committee, headed by Judge Dr. Mohammed Yasser Abu El-Fotouh, decided to reject the appeal submitted by Al-Amar Import & Export Company. The assets of this company were impounded recently due to its suspected ties with the Muslim Brotherhood. The source added that the Committee issued a decision at the end of May 2016 to seize the company due to its affiliation with the organization. The source explained that the company had submitted a grievance to the Committee to cancel that decision, which was turned down after the company’s affiliation with the group was proved by background checks initiated by {Egyptian} security agencies.”

The Seventh Day: Egypt: Muslim Brotherhood Asset Freeze Committee Announces Its Search For Accountants And Executives

“The {Egyptian} Muslim Brotherhood Asset Freeze Committee issued a tender to hire new executives, accountants and IT experts. They {the suitable respondents} will sign contracts to assume temporary management positions in some of the seized Muslim Brotherhood-affiliated companies. This move is part of a plan to improve the operations of these companies and publicly disclose the financial irregularities carried out by the former {Brotherhood-affiliated} managers. Sources said that the Committee has set up technical sub-committees to discuss how to develop the work within the seized Brotherhood companies. This comes as the Committee suspects some former senior managers of having committed financial and administrative irregularities which weakened their companies’ productive capacities.”

The Seventh Day: Egyptian Source: Muslim Brotherhood Fabricates Videos Of Citizens Criticizing The State For Rising Prices

“A security source claimed that Muslim Brotherhood activists were authorized by their international organization to fabricate videos in which individuals belonging to the group talk about the suffering of the Egyptian people due to skyrocketing prices and shortages of vital commodities. The source added that the Brotherhood is attempting to exploit the public’s anger, due to the recent wave of rising prices and the inaccessibility of commodities such as sugar, for instigating {protest} against state institutions. The source revealed that the Brotherhood activists film citizens on the street, inciting them to lash out at the state. Posing as journalists from one of the satellite TV channels, they {actually} post these videos, via the “electronic committees of the Brotherhood”, on Facebook.”