Reading Why Nations Fail, I came across these paragraphs:
We’ll see that the reason that Britain is richer than Egypt is because in 1688, Britain (or England, to be exact) had a revolution that transformed the politics and thus the economics of the nation. People fought for and won more political rights, and they used them to expand their economic opportunities. The result was a fundamentally different political and economic trajectory, culminating in the Industrial Revolution.
The Industrial Revolution and the technologies it unleashed didn’t spread to Egypt, as it was under the control of the Ottoman Empire, which treated Egypt in the same way as the Mubarak family later did.
Countries such a Great Britain became rich because their citizens overthrew the elites who controlled power and created a society where political rights were much more broadly distributed…
Hope this provides as much insight to you as it did me.