The detrimental price of plastic on human health and the environment

The ocean, seemingly pristine and pure; a home for the unknown and a place that attracts many of us due to it’s beauty; a place many of us visit to escape, to clear our minds and to open our imagination.

An experience that, once witnessed, demands it again and again.

Yet, now, it’s all too common that we venture to these places to see nothing but mess; The place we thought of to be pristine is now looking more like a dumping ground with around 5,170 pieces of litter being cleaned up per km across UK beaches and a staggering…


How culture impacts the implementation of law

The coasts of Costa Rica become one of great interest during arribadas (a Spanish word meaning “arrival”), pre-historic creatures begin emerging out of the ocean by the 100’s to lay their eggs. These animals are turtles, the sight is a rare spectacle as they only ever venture onto land to lay eggs.

There are 7 turtle species in total worldwide, and 4 of these can be spotted along the Costa Rica coastline: The leatherback (the largest species of turtle), the hawksbill, the Olive Ridley (which are found in the hundreds during arribadas) and the green sea turtle. All 7 species…


Exploring the moral implications of dog meat

Dogs are perceived to be animals of companionship in most countries around the world. America alone had 69,926,000 dogs as companions in 2012, according to the American Veterinary Medical Association.

However, they are also used for their meat in eleven different countries, with China, Vietnam and Thailand being of most interest. This practice is frowned upon by Westerners in countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States, especially as dog meat consumption was extinguished a very long time ago, or has rarely occurred.*

* Early Britannic and Irish texts suggest that dog meat was consumed in the early…


Asking the tough questions on poaching and conservation

Rhino horn is made up of nothing but keratin, the same material that makes up our fingernails and hair. Yet, the cost of the material when taken from a rhino, is in the region of $65,000 (£52,300) per kilogram. Making the horn a highly prized item.

Rhinos are incredibly important to the ecosystems of African bush and savannahs, they are an ‘umbrella species — a term given to an animal which requires a large area in which to live. If this species is to become protected, the entire range of species living within this large area will also be protected…

Penelope Marshall

Writer for Reformer. Writing on Conservation Issues and Animal Welfare. Graduate of the University of Kent — Wildlife Conservation & Animal Biology

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