While a simple filter for the kind of use cases you are looking for does not exist, you can make better use of ‘Lists’ on Facebook. Just like ‘Close Friends’ and ‘Acquaintances’, you can create a custom list for any kind of friends group you want, which I think you already know about.
On the left panel (on your desktop and right-side pane on mobile), you can see these lists. Simply clicking on any of them filters the feed according to the list you have chosen.
‘Life events’ in general are given a lot more visibility on the feed. But other filters do not exist and I don’t see Facebook introducing any added capabilities to all users. They might be able to do it for select people based on their persona.
Don’t really like to talk about my product on medium but feed filters is something around which I built my product, where you can filter your feed based on the interests you in mood for. You might want to take a look at Glynk.