In the world of hashing, a salt is a random string that can be either appended or prepended to a password before hashing. Once the salt is added to the password, the hash becomes randomized. Randomizing hashes solves the problem rainbow and lookup tables cause. Instead of the same passwords having the same hashes, a salt allows the same passwords to have unique hashes.

//hash with no salt
hash(“hello”) = 2cf24dba5fb0a30e26e83b2ac5b9e29e1b161e5c1fa7425e73043362938b9824
//hashes with unique salts that return unique hashes
hash(“hello” + “QxLUF1bgIAdeQX”) = 9e209040c863f84a31e719795b2577523954739fe5ed3b58a75cff2127075ed1
hash(“hello” + “bv5PehSMfV11Cd”) = d1d3ec2e6f20fd420d50e2642992841d8338a314b8ea157c9e18477aaef226ab
hash(“hello” + “YYLmfY6IehjZMQ”) = a49670c3c18b9e079b9cfaf51634f563dc8ae3070db2c4a8544305df1b60f007