One of the questions I’ve been looking to answer during my travels in the US has been around the design and function of intermediaries and system catalysts in educational change. Those connecting organisations which weave a web and create networks (or meshworks, h/t Elliot Washor) across the various other players within the system and build capacity, knowledge and energy.
In the US these organisations are a vital component in powering innovation ecosystems, and I was able to meet with 5 different organisations which play both distinctive and overlapping roles within the system. What was most striking was the way that each organisation builds innovation pathways for individuals or teams with great ideas and products, both within their own programmes, and in intentionally designing in connectivity with other organisations, drawing upon resource and support from wider networks. There are also numerous entry points into the system, and ideas are nurtured, protected and supported in a holistic way — there is a strong bias to action, reducing barriers, burdens and risk, and sequentially building up capacity over time.
Here is an overview of the organisations I met with and what they do:
Purpose and mission: New Schools Venture Fund is one of the more established catalysts, set up in 1998 by three social entrepreneurs and VCs to find and support education entrepreneurs working in underserved communities. They have a strong interest in defining and shaping the concept of the education entrepreneur, and in supporting new schools to open, scale and become strong networks, through investment in people, tech tools and leadership capacity building.
What they do: They currently run 3 main programmes — New Schools, which is a two year school design and establishment programme for new charter schools, with the first year focussed on R&D and planning/gaining charter approval, as well as matching ideas to areas of need, and the second year designed around supporting schools to open once approved. Sometimes a team applies to the programme with an already tested idea, and sometimes NSVF create teams to explore ideas linking a range of skillsets. New Tools is a 1 year product accelerator for promising new tech tools and products, which are iterated and refined through an evaluative process, and teams receive BD advice, mentoring and coaching from experts. The New Schools and New Tools programmes are built around finding solutions to specific educational challenges which are co-designed across NSVF’s wider network of educators through a 3 month market research programme. They also have a Diverse Leaders programme where they invest in organisations looking to address racial and ethnic inequalities in education.
Who & how they connect: NSVF see themselves as playing an important role in building innovation communities through bringing charter entrepreneurs together, to catalyse new ideas and innovations. They tend to work with either existing or potential school leaders, and most participants on the New Schools programme have some form of teaching or leadership experience. Tech companies which have established proof of concept and are able to demonstrate early adoption are accepted onto the New Tools programme, and all individuals/teams that they work with have to be growth focussed and thinking about scale and wider impacts.
Purpose and Mission: True School Studio focusses on the transformation of existing open schools towards more student centred approaches to learning, through empowering educators to lead change within their schools and across districts, and building teams, innovation capacity and learning communities. Their methodology combines a lean start up and design thinking approach with asset based community development, providing a highly dynamic and energising professional development programme, with the aim of changing mindsets and behaviours.
What they do: Working through partnerships with school districts and at regional level True School run 3 programmes which build and grow ideas. Spark — which is an introductory programme to student centred design practices where participants get to test our ideas and identify opportunities within their settings. Sprint — where school based teacher teams prototype and pilot new ideas either at classroom level or across a grade level. And Solution — where teams further refine ideas within their setting and scale across the whole school. Programmes are run across a locality and school teams apply to participate, with 10–40 schools usually accepted — they have to demonstrate depth of thinking around a clear problem or challenge that they want to solve within their setting. Sometimes school teams may work on highly individualised challenges, and sometimes the programme may be designed around a focus on a specific challenge across the locality which all teams work on e.g. around STEM education, or transitions. Developing education leaders is an important part of the process, and there is an expectation that those who participate in the programme will then take a role in mentoring and coaching future participants and supporting other schools across their locality in moving towards more innovative approaches and implementing new ideas.
Who and how they connect: The programme builds teams at school level, often including individuals who bring different skills and expertise to the team (e.g. leaders, subject specialists, administrators), and also across schools, bringing all teams on the programme together regularly for activities and events to develop links and capacity across a locality. For districts this is really important, as in many of the areas that True School works there are high staff turnover rates in schools so seeding knowledge and changing mindsets on a broad scale is a key outcome.
Purpose & Mission: Similar to True School, LEAP Innovations works across school districts on whole school transformation projects towards more personalised learning methodologies. Their programme is designed around a high level framework, the LEAP Learning framework, which defines and shapes the evolution of pedagogy towards more learner driven and connected approaches, also bridging the education and tech communities through trialling and testing a number of tech tools which allow for greater personalisation. Their aim is to transform schools from the inside out, also building a movement towards more personalised and student centred approaches to school design.
What they do: The LEAP programme has three main components which build sequentially. Collaboratory — which introduces educators and technologists to their learning framework and personalised learning approaches more generally. Pilot — which school based teams apply to take part in and is a 18 month programme where they build a blueprint for personalised learning within their setting, then work on testing and evaluating new methodologies usually at classroom level. And Breakthrough Schools — where successful methodologies and prototypes are scaled whole school. The whole process is typically a 2.5 to 3 years programme, and across a district approximately 30 schools are accepted each round. Tech companies also apply to be part of the Pilot network in testing out new tools and products, and each school is expected to choose a digital tool to incorporate into their design. Through a sophisticated process of R&D, intensive coaching and support, prototyping and evaluation (short cycle trials), promising ideas are identified and interest is generated at school level through evidence of success. Sometimes schools will stay on the pilot programme for 2 years, bringing in additional teacher teams, before moving to breakthrough and scaling methodologies whole school.
Who and how they connect: LEAP also build school based teams across varying roles, linking experts and coaches into the process, and also tech companies and networks. Similar to True School Studio the aim is to seed whole school and systemic change, and building capacity beyond one or two individuals within a school.
Purpose & Mission: 4.0 schools works at the micro level within communities to find education entrepreneurs with promising ideas for solving challenges in education, then supports them through a number of programmes and a wider innovation community to realise their ambition, either through setting up new schools, education programmes, education related social ventures, or building innovation clusters. Their programmes take a community development approach, drawing in and targeting resource and building connections across a wide range of networks and organisations in the Cities where they work.
What do they do: 4.0 run 4 main programmes which craft pathways from identifying and testing new ideas at the grassroots to building sustainable organisations. This includes pitching competitions such as PitchNola, Essentials, which is a 3 day prototyping workshop to develop ideas into a blueprint for a pilot (usually framed around a specific theme e.g. new school designs), and Community Catalyst, which is a year long programme to train entrepreneurs to build innovation communities in their local areas through coaching, peer mentoring, and support from the wider 4.0 community. Their latest programme is the Tiny Fellowship which provides a range of support, coaching and start up capital for individuals with a great idea for a new school design, education programme or tech tool. The programme is designed to enable those who may have full time jobs to take part, reducing the barriers to entry for many people. All their programme models significantly de-risk the process of innovation, starting small with rapid prototyping and testing, and structured to suit those who would struggle to access other programmes due to time and financial constraints.
Who and how they connect: The 4.0 community is almost an innovation ecosystem in its own right, drawing and linking entrepreneurial individuals, resource, mentors and networks together. And open to anyone who may have a great idea for educational change or addressing education inequalities, especially those in communities who might not ever have thought of themselves as entrepreneurial or capable of building a new tool or organisation.
Purpose & Mission: Digital Promise is the National Centre for Research in Advanced Information and Digital Technologies in the US, combining very much a thinking and doing approach to seeding and accelerating change. They work broadly with education leaders, researchers, entrepreneurs and developers, as well as more established organisations and business, to improve learning methodologies and scale new approaches to education design/delivery through new technologies and tech tools.
What they do: They run a number of different programmes and projects, often in partnership with other organisations, to develop and iterate new methodologies which utilise tech, and are primarily a network and movement builder, coming in at the middle level and working with and across school districts and regions to build innovation communities. Often their work and programmes span a whole district or locality, and their role is focussed on convening and facilitation, building clusters and communities of practice — a system glue almost — and developing a network of schools to trial and test new ideas and innovations. They also conduct extensive research into new approaches, and develop toolkits and resources for educators.
Who and how they connect: Through their research and programmes Digital Promise link together educators within and across schools within a locality, and into wider networks nationally, as well as community based organisations which have an interest in education — anchors such as museums and libraries, and business and economic development organisations. Bringing people together through events and online activities/resources to create connections and spark new thinking/ideas, and enable the diffusion of good practice.
These organisations are just 5 examples in a wide array of innovation intermediaries across the US education landscape — see http://www.gettingsmart.com/2016/02/inspiration-incubation-intermediation-keys-to-next-gen-learning-at-scale/ for the fuller picture.
And each plays an important role in the ecosystem jigsaw — from new schools, school transformation, connecting systems, creating new systems and networks, community building, tech innovations, scaling and nurturing ideas, R&D, knowledge development, and ultimately human capacity and capability building, and bringing new skills, ideas and expertise into the system.
With this in mind, there are a number of common characteristics that they all share, for example:
- As connectors and convenors, linking entrepreneurial individuals, organisations and other actors and creating and building pathways for innovation. Activating, inspiring and empowering people, and crafting innovation communities.
- Building narratives and giving communities and movements an identity, as well as places to come together and coalesce. Building collective experiences to create new knowledge.
- Having a strong focus on talent development and building capacity at all levels of education design — pedagogy, systems, leadership, community engagement etc — bringing new skills and voices/expertise/practice into the education system.
- Connecting and translating knowledge and ideas into actions — bridging grassroots needs and sentiment with systems thinking and mobilising and targeting resources (resource=financial plus skills and other community assets).
- Having an organisational function which is something like innovation strategy+funding+skills+opportunity+platform+space & time (space and time being: the space and freedom for people to meet, think, network, spark and generate ideas, have interesting conversations. And funding to free up their time to do this).
- Significantly de-risking the process of innovation and barriers to entry through micro actions, rapid prototyping and testing — they are agile and responsive organisations, creative and flexible to respond to grassroots and school based needs. And providing multiple entry points into the system for individuals, teams or organisations, creating momentum and capacity for change.
- Shifting and evolving the power dynamics across the system, reducing barriers and burdens, and enabling autonomy, agency and creativity at the grassroots including within schools.
For teachers and school leaders these intermediaries provide unique opportunities for professional learning and development, and a huge variety of opportunities to build and develop new areas of practice and collective expertise, including interacting with unfamiliar sectors and becoming leaders in new and different ways. Catalysts draw in and mash up skills, ideas, expertise, shaping powerful conversations and setting directions of travel, and as Gabrielle from True School Studio said to me, the process and experience can be a totally energising and invigorating for educators both in identifying new areas of potential, using their expertise to problem solve, and most importantly being entrusted with the authority and power to affect change.
Could we build system catalysts like this in the UK?
This is something I’ve been thinking about a lot over the last few weeks, and particularly in relation to teacher recruitment challenges and retention rates, the lack of imagination in teacher training, and the general lack of opportunity for dynamic and inspiring professional learning or practice development in the UK.
There are a number of features of the US system which have really driven the development of intermediaries, which are currently absent in the UK:
- significant philanthropic funding and grant funding drives, and a business community heavily invested in educational change
- cultural attitude to risk and innovation
- significant and ingrained systemic education challenges and inequalities which provides focus and deep need for action
- less rigid and prescriptive accountability systems
- political imperatives — including a Federal political system with considerable decision making power devolved to State level
(See also https://medium.com/@RosieClayton/design-tech-futurism-ed-innovation-in-the-bay-6dba2d1b67ba#.blmf4yy1k on the enabling conditions of innovation ecosystems)
That said, as we move to a school led system in the UK, and given the emergence and evolution of Multi Academy Trusts as the main vehicle for education design and delivery (and other school networks e.g. teaching schools) this potentially could allow for greater diversity in approaches, multiple entry points, and the pushing of power and autonomy to the grassroots level.
(The work of LEAP Innovations and True School Studio for example is particularly powerful for learning in the UK in thinking about the wider systemic challenge of how you can change schools from the inside out in a low risk way — ‘school improvement’ towards more transformative rather than traditional approaches, and innovation within the existing system)
In addition there is a strong system imperative now around the need for significant skills, capacity and leadership building. And the devolution of power to City regions and the development of a system of Urban Mayors may also present an opportunity.
So here are some key questions to frame this thinking…
- Where are the existing assets which provide capacity for change — I would include people, time, networks, spaces, business and industry, and groups across civic society energised by a desire for change.
- How do we connect up all those at the grassroots who are already pushing at the boundaries of what is possible. Creating the spaces for debate, energising and activating people.
- How do we inspire with a future focussed vision as well as articulate the challenge — momentum and movement building
- Where are the power levers e.g. at all level of government that can be utilised. How can political capacity be generated
- Where can flex occur on the margins of the mainstream. How can we de-risk innovation by tinkering and iterating at the edges, or within those communities most willing to experiment initially (for a number of motivations)
- How do we reduce the barriers to innovation/entrepreneurship and provide multiple entry points — currently high risk (financially and time), high energy, potentially resource intensive. What could low risk low cost innovation pathways look like.
- Where are investment opportunities, including around social investment/social impact bonds and the social economy, crowdfunding platforms, and drawing together disparate resources. Could the emergence and growth of mission led business provide an opportunity.
All things I will be thinking about post Fellowship as my work develops back in the UK.