soil is a unconsolidated material which consist of solid ,air and water .soil is the upper layer of earth surface .


There are three types of soil

1-dry soil

2-partially saturated soil

3-saturated soil

1-Dry soil- it is the combination of solid and air.

*dry soil=solid +air

2-partially saturated soil- it is the combination of solid ,water and air.

*partially saturated soil=solid +air+water

partially saturated soil

3-saturated soil- it is the combination of solid and water

*saturated soil = solid +water

saturated soil
three types of soil

the above fig. shows the three types of soil.

soil is of two types

1-three phase(solid + air+ water)

three phase solid

2-two phase(solid + air )/ (solid +water )

two phase soil


(1)-water content (w) -in soil water can be present in following forms.

a-gravitational water

b-capillary water

c-hygroscopic water

d-structural water

* three water ( G.W. ,C.W. ,H.W.)can be remove by oven dry at 105–110 degree c temperature for 24 h0ur.

whereas structural water remove by oven drying at temperature 500–700degree c .If structural water removed by a soil then these soil become in crystalline form.

water content is the property of G.W. , C.W. , H.W. . it is the ratio of weight of water to the weight of solid.

w%= weight of water X100/weight of solid

  • w≥0
  • 0≤w≥1

(2) Degree of saturation (S)-volume of water/volume of voids

*S %=volume of water X100 /volume of voids

for dry soil S=0

for saturated soil S=1

for partially saturated soil 0<S<1


(3)-void ratio(e)=

e = volume of voids/ volume of solid

  • e >0

(4)- porosity (n) — volume of void /volume of solid

(5)- unit weight = weight / volume (KN/CU-M)

  • unit weight of water= 9.81(KN/CU-M)

(6)- Density- mass/ volume (KG/CU-M)

  • density of water= 1000 KG/CU-M=1GM/C.C.

A- Bulk unit weight/ bulk density = weight of bulk soil sample /volume of bulk soil sample

B-Dry unit weight = weight of dry soil sample/ volume of dry soil sample

C-Saturated unit weight =

weight of saturated soil sample / volume of saturated soil sample

D-Sub merged unit weight =

unit weight of saturated soil/ unit weight of water

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