soil is a unconsolidated material which consist of solid ,air and water .soil is the upper layer of earth surface .
There are three types of soil
2-partially saturated soil
1-Dry soil- it is the combination of solid and air.
*dry soil=solid +air
2-partially saturated soil- it is the combination of solid ,water and air.
*partially saturated soil=solid +air+water
3-saturated soil- it is the combination of solid and water
*saturated soil = solid +water
the above fig. shows the three types of soil.
soil is of two types
1-three phase(solid + air+ water)
2-two phase(solid + air )/ (solid +water )
#BASIC PROPERTIES OF SOIL
(1)-water content (w) -in soil water can be present in following forms.
* three water ( G.W. ,C.W. ,H.W.)can be remove by oven dry at 105–110 degree c temperature for 24 h0ur.
whereas structural water remove by oven drying at temperature 500–700degree c .If structural water removed by a soil then these soil become in crystalline form.
water content is the property of G.W. , C.W. , H.W. . it is the ratio of weight of water to the weight of solid.
w%= weight of water X100/weight of solid
(2) Degree of saturation (S)-volume of water/volume of voids
*S %=volume of water X100 /volume of voids
for dry soil S=0
for saturated soil S=1
for partially saturated soil 0<S<1
e = volume of voids/ volume of solid
- e >0
(4)- porosity (n) — volume of void /volume of solid
(5)- unit weight = weight / volume (KN/CU-M)
- unit weight of water= 9.81(KN/CU-M)
(6)- Density- mass/ volume (KG/CU-M)
- density of water= 1000 KG/CU-M=1GM/C.C.
A- Bulk unit weight/ bulk density = weight of bulk soil sample /volume of bulk soil sample
B-Dry unit weight = weight of dry soil sample/ volume of dry soil sample
C-Saturated unit weight =
weight of saturated soil sample / volume of saturated soil sample
D-Sub merged unit weight =
unit weight of saturated soil/ unit weight of water