Arnold Schoenberg
Abstractions Arrive: Having Been There All the Time
Stephen Schenkenberg

As noted in my essay on the audiobook of “The Tunnel,” Gass adopted Arnold Schoenberg’s 12-tone system for that novel’s construction: “Using Schoenberg, he devised a work consisting of 12 chapters of about the same length… in each chapter one of the book’s main themes would dominate, with the other themes rising and falling behind it, less loud, but always present.”