Golang HTTP server for pro

How to start a new web project with Go, using Routing, Middleware and Let’s Encrypt certification.

Golang have a great http server package: net/http As always, it’s simple and very powerful. Define the function that handle a route, and let’s listen to port 80.

package main

import (
"io"
"net/http"
)
func main() {
http.HandleFunc("/", helloWorldHandler)
http.ListenAndServe(":80", nil)
}
func helloWorldHandler(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
io.WriteString(w, "Hello world!")
}

Nice, but let’s use a more powerfull router like the Gorilla package: gorilla/mux http://www.gorillatoolkit.org/pkg/mux

It implements a request router and a dispatcher. It allows you to create routes with named parameters, restricted on http verb and host/domain management.

Gorilla Routing in action!

Updating the previous exemple with this package allow us to manage easily many routes with simples configurations:

func main() {
r := mux.NewRouter()
r.HandleFunc("/products/{key}", ProductHandler)
r.HandleFunc("/articles/{category}/", ArticlesCategoryHandler)
r.HandleFunc("/articles/{category}/{id:[0-9]+}", ArticleHandler)
http.Handle("/", r)
}

Use alice to manage our middleware

Middleware pattern is very common if you use the webserver package. If you don’t have seen it yet, you should watch this video from Mat Ryer at the Golang UK Conference 2015 about the power of middleware. (Full blog post here)

And another great article about the middleware patterns http://www.alexedwards.net/blog/making-and-using-middleware

As described by it author (Github):

Alice provides a convenient way to chain your HTTP middleware functions and the app handler.

In short, it transforms

Middleware1(Middleware2(Middleware3(App)))

to

alice.New(Middleware1, Middleware2, Middleware3).Then(App)

Here’s our first exemple, updated with Alice’s usage:

func main() {
errorChain := alice.New(loggerHandler, recoverHandler)
r := mux.NewRouter()
r.HandleFunc("/products/{key}", ProductHandler)
r.HandleFunc("/articles/{category}/", ArticlesCategoryHandler)
r.HandleFunc("/articles/{category}/{id:[0-9]+}", ArticleHandler)
http.Handle("/", errorChain.then(r))
}

You can chain many handler, but here are the two described:

func loggerHandler(h http.Handler) http.Handler {
    return http.HandlerFunc(func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
start := time.Now()
h.ServeHTTP(w, r)
log.Printf("<< %s %s %v", r.Method, r.URL.Path, time.Since(start))
})
}

The loggerHandler, and the recoverHandler:

func recoverHandler(next http.Handler) http.Handler {
fn := func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
defer func() {
if err := recover(); err != nil {
log.Printf("panic: %+v", err)
http.Error(w, http.StatusText(500), 500)
}
}()
next.ServeHTTP(w, r)
}
return http.HandlerFunc(fn)
}

At this point, we have a HTTP server, with a powerful routing package. You can also manage middleware with ease, to extend quickly the functionalities of your application.

Midlleware everywhere with Alice!

HTTP server is nice, HTTPS server is better!

Easy and fast way to create a secure HTTP server, it to use Let’s Encrypt service. Let’s Encrypt uses the ACME protocol to verify that you control a given domain name and to issue you a certificate. It’s called a certification, and yes, there’s a Auto-Certification package: acme/autocert

m := autocert.Manager{
Prompt: autocert.AcceptTOS,
HostPolicy: autocert.HostWhitelist("www.checknu.de"),
Cache: autocert.DirCache("/home/letsencrypt/"),
}

Create the http.server using tls:

server := &http.Server{
Addr: ":443",
TLSConfig: &tls.Config{
GetCertificate: m.GetCertificate,
},
}
err := server.ListenAndServeTLS("", "") if err != nil {         log.Fatal("ListenAndServe: ", err) }
And now it’s done!

You can find this HTTP server here:

Like what you read? Give Thomas P a round of applause.

From a quick cheer to a standing ovation, clap to show how much you enjoyed this story.