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Moving funds between L2 systems with minimal friction

TL;DR

  • L2 Interoperability means allowing users to move funds between L2 systems with minimal L1 friction.
  • The proposed L2 interoperability solution relies on our previously suggested Conditional Transaction (Tx) cryptographic primitive.
  • StarkEx 2.0 (Nov 2020) will offer L2-L1 interoperability (Fast Withdrawals), using on-chain Conditional Txs.
  • StarkEx 3.0 (Feb 2021) will offer L2-L2 interoperability across StarkEx systems, using off-chain Conditional Txs.

Background

Layer-2 (L2) scaling solutions are evolving rapidly. There are already multiple validity proof systems on Mainnet, as well as fraud proof systems on testnet. L2 solutions solve scalability, but do so at a cost: they might break or diminish various characteristics we’ve come to expect when operating strictly on L1. …


Capital Efficiency vs. Security

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TL;DR

  • We claim that Liquidity Providers will necessarily prefer a ZKR-Uniswap (Uniswap over a ZK-Rollup) to an OR-Uniswap (Uniswap over an Optimistic Rollup), as the ZKR-Uniswap will be *far* more capital efficient.
  • Improving capital efficiency in an OR requires shortening its Dispute Time Delay (DTD), thus making a Fraud+Censor attack on L1 cheaper.
  • That is the fundamental OR dilemma between capital efficiency and security:
    Improving capital efficiency must decrease security.

Background

The increase of gas price on Ethereum in recent months has generated plenty of interest in scaling solutions, and in particular in Layer-2 (L2) scaling solutions. …


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TL;DR

Cairo is the first production-grade platform for generating STARK proofs for general computation. It is Turing Complete, and highly efficient. Everything we’ve been building — starting with our Reddit Bake-off submission — is written in Cairo, including all our upcoming deployments: DeversiFi, Immutable, and dYdX.

Whatever your computation and storage needs are, if you want massive scale at low gas cost on Ethereum, Cairo can be of use. Over the coming quarters we’ll start offering Cairo developer tools; till then we invite you to come talk to us about building your application together.

Background

The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-off was a significant milestone for us at StarkWare. Not so much because of what we achieved — 300,000 transactions in a single STARK proof — but rather because of how we achieved it. The Reddit Bake-off was the first time we deployed Cairo, our production-grade Turing-complete¹ platform for producing STARK proofs for general computation, to Ethereum Mainnet. Our upcoming Mainnet deployments will all be Cairo-based…

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StarkWare

bringing scalability and privacy to a blockchain near you

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