Ask Ethan: How does dark matter interact with black holes?
Ethan Siegel

Black hole by definition is a kind of dark matter.

“So at the end of the day, dark matter is just another food source for black holes, and not a very good one at that. … No other types of charge exist in dark matter, and other than the angular momentum from falling in off-center (which applies to photons, too), there’s no other effect on black holes at all, either going in or coming out.”

Your conclusion implies that you know both the questions and answers perfectly, but you do not.

In the mid-1970s, Stephen Hawking claimed that block hole will destroy all information about what had fallen in. And, this gives rise to the black-hole information paradox. Yet, in the last year (2015, 40 years after his claim), Hawking claimed the opposite, the information is not lost. That is, Hawking and all his black hole physicists do not truly know what the black is all about.

“On the other hand, the total amount of dark matter in that same sphere? Only about 1 × 1⁰¹⁹ kg, or just 0.0000000005% the mass of the normal matter in that same region, or about the mass of a modest asteroid the size of Juno, approximately 200 km across.”

You are able to calculate to such a precision when there is no observational data to check you out.

You will not be doubted only if you can calculate two well-known observational data:

One, Planck CMB data (dark energy = 69.2; dark matter = 25.8; and visible matter = 4.82)

Two, Cosmology Constant = 10^(-120)

“Atoms, nuclei, and even fundamental particles themselves are crushed down to an arbitrarily small thickness in our three-dimensional space.

This is totally wrong.

Let me get this right for the public.

First, about tidal force.

There is a rod with one meter long, [(rB — rA) = 1 meter]

When this rod falls into a black hole with point A as head, point B as tail.

Then, the gravity force for A and B are:

F(A) = F(r), r is the distance of point A to the center of the black hole in meters.

F(B) = F(r + 1)

Then, Tidal force of (A, B) = F(r) — F(r-1) = Tf(A, B)

In or near black hole, Tf(A, B) is so strong, and it can tear apart (break up) the rod. Eventually, the rod will become zillion pieces.

Second, basically, there are, at least, three types of stars.

One, ‘proton’ star (PS): like our Sun which is 99.99% composed of ‘hydrogen atom (containing proton)”

Two, ‘neutron’ star (NS)

Three, ‘black hole’ (BH)

The diameter of PS (like Sun) is in average ‘one million’ miles, and mostly composed with protons (hydrogen atom). The tidal force of Sun is not big enough to break up the hydrogen atom. Yet, the nuclear fusion produces enough ‘thermo-energy’ to balance the gravitation force of the Sun. So, it has a huge diameter.

When the hydrogens are all burnt out, the helium fusion produces much less thermo-energy, the gravitation force will get the upper hand and pull the matter inward. It collapses, with a few pathways.

Type I Supernova: results a white dwarf star, the carbon fusion begins to support a radius about 7000km (about the size of Earth). Yet, it is still a ‘proton’ star.

Type II Supernova: When the tidal force is big enough to break up hydrogen or helium atoms, it collapses as a neutron star with the average radius of (1 to 10 miles), a size of a small city. All atoms are pulled apart, and no proton can survive.

If the tidal force is strong enough to break up ‘neutron’, it becomes ‘black hole’ with Schwarzschild radius about 10 miles for a 3-solar-mass black hole. All hadron particles are pulled apart.

Then, what is inside of the black hole? All quarks? No.

The only theory which describes the internal structure of black hole is the string theory: inside of the black hole, there is no particles but are all strings.

In M-string theory, those strings form the branes, the D-brane.

In G-string theory, those quark-strings (line-string) curl up into ring-strings, almost like a point.

The big difference between G-string and M-string is that G-string has ‘internal’ structure (described with A, V). Those quark/lepton G-strings are ‘line’-strings. When they become ring-strings, they are no different from the M-ring-strings, see .

That is, all M-string’s formula do work for G-string. In the black hole, G-string will become an M-ring-string. Note: without the internal structure, M-string is unable to describe the universe outside of the black hole and is a failed theory, see .

When G-quark-string (line-string) curls up into a ring-string, the quark color charge and generations are neutralized (not destroyed). So, when a particle (neutron or else) falls into a black hole, it becomes a ring-string, with all charges neutralized but conserved. When they are radiated out later, the rings straighten back up to regain their charges. That is, no information lost, nor gained.

This information issue is very simple, only about a bookkeeping. The TOTAL information of this universe is perfectly documented with a nature constant, the Cosmology Constant, see . Not a single information since the beginning of this universe is lost.

This issue can be viewed in another way.

Black hole by definition is a kind of dark matter, as it is invisible while carries a big mass. Then, there are zillions black holes in this universe. Yet, black holes play almost zero role in any viable dark matter cosmology. Black hole is just a small part of the dark mass issue.