Ask Ethan: How Small Can A Piece Of The Universe Be And Still Expand?
Ethan Siegel

Coin analogy is better but is still wrong.

There are five facts (not theories).

One, the universe is expanding, measured by and with Hubble constant.

Two, that expanding is accelerating.

Three, there is Cosmology constant Λ, defined as the value of the energy density of the vacuum of space. The measured value is between 10 ^ (-120) to 10 ^ (-124).

Four, there is dark energy, accounts for 69.2% of the total energy of this universe.

Five, no space expansion inside of galaxy.

These five facts could be caused by different sources but are most likely from a single source. Of course, with Occam’s razor, the single source explanation will kill other explanations.

Yet, is there a single source explanation? Is there an explanation at all?

Yes, there is a single source explanation, which encompasses not only those five facts above but all facts of this universe.

It starts from the clear and precise definition and calculation of Cosmology constant Λ.

Cosmology constant Λ = {1/ (total quantum action count of this universe)}

Λ is the SHARE of a single quantum action to the total quantum action count of this universe.

Then, what is ‘quantum action’?

Quantum action = {action of a quantum entity (particle, space, time) moves from [here (now), now] to [here (next), next], measured with a quantum UNIT ħ}

Thus, it can be written as an equation:

Delta S x Delta T = F (ħ) …… Equation A

So, a function F (quantum action) can be defined as:

F (quantum action) = K ħ/ (Delta S x Delta T), K is a coupling coefficient.

Yet, F (quantum action) x Delta T = delta P (momentum)

So, we get a measuring ruler: Delta P x Delta S >= ħ

Now, we can calculate Cosmology constant Λ.

The {total quantum action count of this universe} = {[1/ (ħ C) ^4] x T}

Why? See,

T (life time of universe, 13.799±0.021 billion years) = 4.34 x 10 ^17 s (second)

So, Cosmology constant Λ = 2.242 x 10^-120

If replace ħ with h, Λ will be a few orders smaller, about 10 ^ (-124). The actual measured value is about 3 x 10 ^ -123

Equation A is in fact the universe EXPENSION equation, moving EVERY point of this universe from {here, now} to {here, next}, see figure 2. That is, every POINT of this universe is expending. The atom in the cell of your nose has zillion quantum actions in a given unit of time, and they are all expanding.

But, why is your nose not exploding away?

It is because that your nose is held together by other stronger forces (strong force, electromagnetic force, etc.), and those expanded SPACE is squeezed out. In fact, those expanded SPACE are squeezed out even by the gravity of galaxy; that is, no space expansion inside of galaxies. The expanded space from the entire galaxy is pushed out into the space between galaxies.

Yet, how can the above process causing the acceleration of expansion?

Just look at three points from the graph above.

A = R (n — 1)

B = R (n)

C = R (n + 1)

With the equation A, the expansion is uniform. So, the expansion among the three points (A, B, C) is the function of the AREA (function of delta R square) between the rings.

Now, we can define the expansion velocity.

V1 = V (T1, BA) = delta R (BA)/delta T = R, when we choose delta T = 1, and delta R (BA, T1) is measured as R.

V2 = V (T1, CA) = delta R (CA)/ delta T = aR, a > 1 by measurement.

That is, (V2 — V1) > 0, and this is acceleration.

This calculation actually works for the {V1 (T1, BA), V2 (T2, BA)}. By definition of this mechanism, delta R (T2, BA) must be bigger than delta R (T1, BA). So, {V2 (T2, BA) — V1 (T1, BA) > 0}.

That is, (uniform expansion at every point) = (accelerating expansion of universe)

Now, we have explained all five facts with a single mechanism, the equation A (details, see ).

Figure 2, see

The current (2016) mainstream physics status is this: #PostCheckmateTTF (Post Checkmate temper tantrum fit).


M-string claims that the low-energy string vibrational patterns (wavelength and amplitude) on Calabi-Yau space correspond to our familiar elementary particles (fermions and bosons).

Where is the list for this {particle/music note} description?

Is this just a hot air hype?