I was aware castration is performed without anaesthetic but your article opens our eyes to the nature of the extreme cruelty allowed in industrial farming where volume, efficiency and profit is the priority. You also make a very good point that consumers are partly to blame for this cruelty by favouring cheap meat over quality and higher animal welfare. Anyone who cares about animals (and isn’t cherry-picking pets) will surely want this to stop. Waiting for the US government to act will be a long wait, so consumer action looks like the best way to drive change. I imagine the same cruel castration process occurs in factory farming in other countries too.