I disagree that the regulatory environment contributes to this problem. This is the result of one passenger putting their needs ahead of all downstream traffic and the local staff/company choosing not to offer more (for a 1.5hr flight) or come up with some other solution other than physical removal. There are four other carriers who each have their own policies for involuntary bumps. More competition is unlikely to get rid of involuntary bumps — they make financial and environmental sense. The aspect to address with competition would be more creative removal/bumping procedures. I see a shorter path using government intervention of some level rather than waiting for competition changes on an issue that affects very few passengers as the solution here. It is worth mentioning the difference between the DoT offering guidance and imposing regulations.