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Remark: Caution must be undertaken regarding what part of the data is scaled and when. A common mistake is to scale the whole dataset before training and test split are being applied. Why is this a mistake? Because scaling invokes the calculation of statistics e.g. the min/max of a …

…urons such as tanh or sigmoid are defined on the [-1, 1] or [0, 1] interval respectively. Nowadays, rectified linear unit (ReLU) activations are commonly used activations which are unbounded on the axis of possible activation values. Howeve…

[-1, 1]

[0, 1]

…validation, such as rolling forecasts with and without refitting or more elaborate concepts such as time series bootstrap resampling. The latter involves repeated samples from the remainder of the seasonal decomposition of the time …