Complementary Nutrition in Infants

The healthy growth and development of the baby can be achieved by providing appropriate nutrients. Breastmilk is sufficient for the first 6 months alone, but after this period, it is necessary to make some additions to the baby nutrition programs since the needs of the infants can not be met by themselves. Maternal smoking is called “complementary feeding” as long as the milk alone starts in the period when the milk child does not fully meet the energy and nutritional needs and other foods and drinks are delivered with the breast milk. Complementary nutrition is also called transition period from mother’s milk to adult nutrition. During this period, the baby acquires different tastes, flavors and nutrients in the structure. Complementary foods are studied in two groups: transition foods (specially prepared foods for the infant) and family meals (foods consumed by the other members of the family). Breastfeeding with complementary nutrition is important for child health. Complementary nutrition, initiated at the appropriate time and maintained in accordance with the rules, ensures that the baby reaches the age at which the baby can consume the food of the family around the age of one. Supplementary foods should be started on time, foods should be adequate, reliable and appropriate.

Complementary Nutrition Start Time
In a dairy child who is growing and increasingly mobility, from the sixth month onwards only breastfeeding alone does not meet the needs of energy and nutrients. The transition foods, which are started after the sixth month, serve as a bridge to the family meals as the baby is fed with breast milk. Complementary nutrition should be applied period is 6 months later. The transitional foods that are introduced in the sixth month help the dairy child to adapt to different tastes, flavor and consistency, while at the same time helping to develop the nerves related to the eating function. In order to develop these functions, easy recipes for the baby can be prepared. When preparing easy recipes, your baby should be able to meet with salt and sugar as late as possible.

What are the Factors Affecting the Transition Time to Complementary Nutrition?
The ability of infants to feed on solid foods is associated with the maturation of the neuromuscular, digestive, excretion, and defense systems. From the sixth month, babies have reached the development of the gastro-intestinal and nervous system, which can digest stronger nutrients. Table 1 gives information on the development of the first 18 months according to the types of food consumed by infants.
The baby’s neuromuscular development determines the age limit at which she is ready to receive food of a certain consistency. At the beginning (6–7th months) the food should be given in a soft consistency crush, 7–8. It should be continued with some non-lustrous food for several months and the chewing movements and liquid drinking skills of the baby should be followed. The puree-shaped foods should be continued until the turn of the baby’s ability to chew, then increased (in 8–12 months) the degree of consistency (nutritious crushed foods). In these months, the ability to rotate the nutrients given in infants develops. The baby should be ready to eat family meals at the age of one and eat with all the family members at the family table. The appearance of the teeth of babies contributes to the start of the chewing process. If the consistency of the complementary food does not match the development of the baby, the baby can not consume enough food or take it far beyond the required amount. If the baby is delayed to solid nutrients for up to 10 months, behavioral disturbances related to nutrition during this period continue in later periods. For this reason, it is suggested to gradually increase the nutrient consistency with age.

Disadvantages of Complementary Feeding Early and Late Start
• Early initiation of complementary nutrients reduces the duration of breastfeeding and breastfeeding.
• Since complementary nutrients are an important source of contamination, early initiation of these nutrients reduces the protective factors in the mother’s milk. For this reason, the rate of infections in infants and the risk of death due to these diseases increase.
• Nutritional values ​​of complementary nutrients are lower than that of mothers, and they can not pass on to the mother.
• Shortening the duration of breastfeeding as a result of early initiation of complementary nutrients causes the baby not to benefit from breast milk.
• Early initiation of complementary nutrients and use with the same breast milk reduces the absorption of many nutrients such as iron and zinc in the mother’s milk.
• Risks of atopic diseases, asthma, type 1 diabetes, allergic diseases, infectious diseases, and especially destruction of the intestinal villus function, resulting from early onset of complementary nutrients, increase.
• As a result of the late start of supplementary foods, malnutrition (malnutrition) and various vitamin mineral deficiencies occur in the development and development of the baby.
• Micro nutrient deficiencies such as iron and zinc are formed when the complementary nutrients are started late. Because breast milk, which supplies enough iron and zinc to the baby until the 6th month, is inadequate after this period alone.
• In addition, late onset of complementary nutrients and the development of eating functions such as chewing baby are delayed in adapting to the new taste and nutrients in the structure.
• If the mother’s milk is reduced in the first 6 months (the result of wrong breastfeeding technique or the result of not completely emptying the breast in the chest), the mother should be educated to increase mother’s milk, correct mistakes and start supplementary foods unnecessarily early.
Compared to children who had received complementary nutrients after 6 months, children who had received complementary nutrients before the first 15 weeks of life had a higher frequency of respiratory disturbances at 7 years (21% and 10%, respectively) and higher body fat (19% and 17%, respectively) .

Reliability of Complementary Nutrients
Complementary foods contaminated with harmful microorganisms (especially water used for food preparation) can cause diarrhea. For this reason, in infants who receive only breast milk for 6 months, the incidence of diarrhea increases with the initiation of complementary nutrients. It is known that 1.8 million children die every year due to diarrheal diseases in the world. Foodborne infections cause loss of appetite. Increased food intake losses due to diarrhea, diarrhea, vomiting, malabsorption and fever affect infant and child’s immunity, growth and development are affected. Studies have shown that a significant proportion of diarrheal diseases and other foodborne infections are caused by the preparation of foods in non-hygienic conditions in the home environment. The sources of contamination of foods vary. Raw foods themselves are the source of contamination. In addition, food preparation and storage conditions increase the risk of cross-contamination. In order to prevent foodborne infectious diseases, it is necessary to prepare foods at least a few hours before they are consumed, to store them in the environment of temperature and humidity that are not suitable for the generation of pathogens or toxins, and to heat them sufficiently to reduce the underlying pathogens. Before the food is prepared, the washing of the mother’s hands, the mother’s and the baby’s hands before eating should be the most important cleanliness to be observed. Use of clean bowls, cups, spoons etc. should be used in the preparation and presentation of the foods, bottles should not be used for the reasons of poor cleaning.