I’m not as up on the stats concerning general disparate treatment of minority communities by law enforcement both because it’s harder to quantify than killings and also because general disparate treatment in law enforcement hasn’t been as much the focus of the media’s current race crusade as police killings of unarmed blacks (so it wouldn’t’ve really contributed to the uptick in racial tensions in recent years that I’ve been examining). I do know, however, that the same comprehensive Roland Fryer study that, among many other studies, found no evidence of disproportionate police shootings of unarmed blacks, did find evidence of bias against blacks in use of non-lethal force. And in general, I would not be surprised if there’s general bias against blacks among law enforcement, simply because, as I’ve explained here, as soon as you get an underclass that’s racially marked, you’re naturally going to get biases forming against that underclass. That’s what happens in pretty much every society in the history of the whole world. Moreover, because (due simply to poverty, not race) any underclass is more likely to be involved in criminal activity, a rule to which the black underclass in America is no exception, many cops will obviously have certain preconceived notions about blacks that are going to reflect that reality. So, again, I’d be shocked if there weren’t bias against blacks among many cops. That doesn’t mean I support such bias; it’s something that’s good to be aware of and combat … except I think the only lasting way to combat it is to work to get blacks out of the underclass, and the only way that’s going to happen, as I’ve said, is to put less emphasis on race and more on economics and class, because that unites a large cross-section of poor and working-class people rather than carving them up into antagonistically situated racial groupings.