Facts about Big Bang you missed

Do you know big bang theory was established widely because of 3 major findings. Do you know how universe filled with galaxies and nebulae after big bang

If you don’t know the answers keep reading.

Big bang theory was established because of these 3 major findings:

  1. Einstein’s theory of general relativity
  2. Edwin Hubble discovered galaxies was moving away from each other
  3. Discovery of cosmic microwave radiation in 1964. it is a type of radiation that spread throughout the universe at the instant of big bang.

These findings helped scientists to solve mysteries about big bang. Now Big bang is a widely accepted theory. But what really happened before big bang is still a mystery. There are many theories. Just theories only.

shall we discuss what happened after the big bang? second by second.

1. Inflation (10^-35 second after big bang)

At this moment space started to expand, like a balloon into unknown. Scientists argue it expanded from a singularity. Temperature and pressure was so high at this instant.

2.Quark era (10^-32 second after big bang)

High temperature and pressure at these instant created particles known as Gluons. These Gluons led to the creation of Quarks. Quarks are created as pairs. These Quarks destroyed each other and with this energy nore gluons are again created.

Matter and energy was same at this time. Matter and antimatter are created and destroyed at hte moment of creation. BUt after some time some matter survived. Matter proportion became higher than antimatter. So some matter escaped from annihilation.

3. Forming of natural laws (10^-9 second after big bang)

Because of the abundance of matter, force were created. Instead of a single force that control the entire matter, force were divided into four.

Those are Strong nuclear force, Weak nuclear force, Electromagnetic force, and Force of gravity.

4. Hadron and lepton era (10^-6 second after big bang)

At this instant space has expanded into almost one million km. because of this temperature and pressure statrerted to decrease slowly. Creation and destruction of new quarks came to a standstill.

The space expanded with the remaining quarks it had. Not a single particle were newly created after this instant.

The remaining quarks are converted into a different particle known as Hadrons. Protons, Neutrons are types of hadron.

5. Nucleosynthesis era (1 second after big bang)

Now space has expanded into almost 1 billion km. Temperature has further dropped because of this. neutrons started to decay and led to the formation of more protons.

This led to the creation of first atom, Hydrogen.

6. Opaque era (200 second after big bang)

More and more hydrogen atoms formed from hadrons and electrons. Universe has become more stable. This period is known as opaque era or dark age because there was no stars at this moment.

After lakhs of years hydrogen atoms accumulated and gravity exerted high pressure on it externally. nuclear fission happened and hydrogen was converted into helium. Light and heat was released as a byproduct. This is what we call stars.

Group of stars led to galaxies and many other universal wonders formed after this point.

That’s it. Now you captured all the facts you missed.

Have a great day :)



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Adarsh S

Adarsh S

A Computer Science nerd, writing across all the physical sciences, from anthropology to quantum physics, with climate change and the environment in between