Esperanto, Eo, La Lingvo Internacia, is the most far-flung spoken Formulated(or artificial) international language. It is a manufactured language one which is artificially designed like phonology, grammar and vocabulary rather than having evolved naturally over time. Formulated languages tend to be very Systematic because they didn’t undergo historical develops that normally occur in natural languages.
The name Esperanto originates from Doktoro Esperanto, the pseudonym of a Polish linguist, Dr. Ludovic Lazarus Zamenhof who created Esperanto in the late 1870s and early 1880s. And his goal was to create devise a universal second language that will be helpful hostilities of nationalism and promote internationalism. In 1887 Warsaw, Poland, the first Esperanto grammar was published. In 1905, France, the first world congress of Esperanto speakers was held. Until interrupted only by the two World Wars, since well-attended world congresses have been held every year.
The basics of phonology, grammar, and vocabulary of Esperanto inspired by Indo-European languages. In that way, It's no truly an international language, but more as an Indo-European language with no national amalgamation. It may be some of the Speakers of non-Indo-European languages can be as easy or difficult found to learn as any naturally progressed Romance language.
Esperanto is continuously speaking from when it was created, even though it is not distinguished as an official language by any country. According to Ethnologue, “Esperanto is spoken as a second language in 115 countries by some Two million people, most of them in Central and Eastern Europe, East Asia, and South America”.
Esperanto has original & translated books over 25,000 and over a hundred Esperanto magazines. It used by many Esperanto speakers during the travel throughout the world using the Pasporta servo, a sociability service for speakers of Esperanto. In many countries, There are pen pals around the world using services on the contrary Esperanto Mondo. Every year, a few thousand Esperanto speakers meet to attend the World Congress of Esperanto (Universala Kongreso de Esperanto).
Esperanto grammar is profoundly European in that, it is a rhythmic language, for instance, one in which words are formed by adding prefixes and suffixes to roots to mark grammatical functions.
Nouns, adjectives, and pronouns
- All nouns end in -o.
- All adjectives end in -a.
- Nouns and adjectives have two cases: nominative and accusative. The accusative is formed by adding -n to the nominative.
- Demonstrative and personal pronouns also have a genitive case.
- All other relationships are expressed by prepositions. All prepositions take the nominative case, e.g., de mia patrino ‘my mother’s’.
- There are two numbers: singular and plural. The plural is formed by adding -j to the singular.
- Adjectives generally agree with nouns in case and number.
- There is a single definite article la which is similar to the English definite article ‘the’. It always has the same form.
- All verbs are regular.
- Verbs are not marked for person or number.
- Verbs have the following endings:
- The passive is expressed by the appropriate form of esti ‘to be’ + past passive participle of the verb.
- Esperanto has a conditional and jussive mood.
- Aspect in Esperanto bears some resemblance to Slavic lexical aspect Aktionsart.
- Compound tenses are formed with the adjectival participles plus esti ‘to be’. The participle carries aspect and voice, while the verb carries the tense.
Word order The word order of Esperanto is typically Subject — Verb — Object. Adjectives can either precede or follow nouns.
Mostly, Esperanto’s vocabulary comes from Latin by way of Greek, furthermore Romance and Germanic languages. According to this is why almost entirely of its words sounds palsy-walsy to speakers of Western European languages or to anyone who knows a Romance language.
Hello: Saluton, Good morning: Bonan matenon, Goodbye: Ĝis poste, Ĝis (la) revido, Ĝis la, Ĝis, Adiaŭ, How are you? Kiel vi fartas? Thank you: Dankon, Please: Bonvolu, Excuse me: Pardonu!, Yes: Jes, No: Ne, Man: Homo, viro, Woman: Virino.
The Esperanto alphabet has 28 letters. 22 of them are the same as in English. There are no letters Q, W, X, and Y. And six letters that don’t exist in English: Ĉ, Ĝ, Ĥ, Ĵ, Ŝ, Ŭ.
- c = ts
- ĉ = ch in chop
- ĝ = j in job
- ĥ = /x/ which has no equivalent in English
- ĵ = s in measure
- ŝ = sh in shop
- ŭ = w in cow
Here’s the lines of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Esperanto.
Universala Deklaracio de Homaj Rajtoj Artikolo 1 Ĉiuj homoj estas denaske liberaj kaj egalaj laû digno kaj rajtoj. Ili posedas racion kaj konsciencon, kaj devus konduti unu al alia en spirito de frateco.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 1 All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.