Note: unless you have familiarity with zero-knowledge proofs or ZK-SNARKs, I would suggest reading Part 1 and Part 2 of this blog series.

Now that we covered ZK-SNARKs, let’s expand into some of the issues with ZK-SNARKs, and discuss recent innovations in zero-knowledge cryptography: ZK-STARKs (Zero-Knowledge Scalable Transparent ARguments of Knowledge).

ZK-SNARKs have a few underlying issues that will lead to reduced adoption for leveraging zero-knowledge cryptography in blockchains and other potential implementations as well:


Welcome back! Let’s dig deeper into zk-SNARKs.

Note: unless you have familiarity with zk-SNARKs, I would suggest reading Part 1 of this blog series.

Quick recap: There are two primary parties in a zk-SNARK, a prover and a verifier. Using a zk-SNARK a prover wants to assure a verifier about a statement of knowledge, without revealing what that exact knowledge is to the verifier.

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What is a zk-SNARK?

Prior to walking through a more technical example, let’s walk through what properties a zk-SNARK must satisfy first:


Our personal data (date of birth, social security number, education credentials, work histories, etc.) helps create a picture of who we are, our identity. In the wake of Facebook’s data being mined [1] by Cambridge Analytica and Equifax’s massive data breach [2] (a company that holds our most personal data, including web usage statistics, financial information as well as medical data), I think there is much to be improved in how our data is handled by any such organization. The concept of a self-sovereign identity [3], where organizations will no longer own or even keep our data is right around…

Adam Luciano

A curious, resourceful, technically adept, business minded, blockchain and investment expert.

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