lift, thrust, drag and weight.
In 1640, Evagelista Torricelli discovered that air has weight. When experimenting with measuring mercury, he discovered that air put pressure on the mercury. A man by the name of Francesci Lana used this theory to make an airship. The ship would be able to float since he would remove the air out of the sphere and be able to float higher. When hot air expands, it becomes lighter than cool air, thus, it would be able to float longer.
There are four levels of flight being General Aviation, Subsonic, Supersonic, and Hypersonic. All of these are measured in mph, or when it breaks the sound barrier, Machs. Sound at the front of an object going at Mach 1 (preferably a plane) will create a shockwave at the front of it. But to be able to be faster than the speed of sound, the object must go faster and break through the shockwave of the sound. A loud noise will be created once the object has broken through the shockwave barrier.
Wings lift a plane because they are shaped to make air move faster on the top of the wing, not the bottom. The reason the wings are shaped for the top to move faster and the bottom isn’t is because there is a lot of air pressure and then it would create drag. The air pressure on the top of the wing creates lift.
How does a plane fly? First we need to know the parts of a plane. Ailerons are connected to the wings and make the plane move left and right. The elevators on the back of the plane help the plane go up or descend down. The rudder is located on the back fin and helps the ailerons move left or right. A roll has to do with ailerons while the pitch is for elevators and the yaw is for the rudder. Ailerons lower one wing while lifting the other up (or the same in the other direction) creating the plane to move left or right which makes a roll. Elevators make the plane go up if raised up or go down if the elevators are faced down. Last but not least on this section is the rudder. The rudder makes the plane yaw left or right depending on its position, but this simply means that it is used to make the plane turn with the help of the ailerons.
There are four forces of flight. Thrust, drag, weight and lift. Thrust is simply the force of the turbines pushing the planes. Lift is the pressure from the wings making it go up. Weight is how heavy the plane is and drag is the resistance of the airflow that is coming towards the plane. But, drag and thrust cancel each other out, or they equal each other. The reason behind this is simple. The drag resists the plane from coming forward while the thrust is pushing it forward, and this is like an argument that disagrees yet agrees with one another. Lift and gravity are counterparts because lift is making the plane go up while gravity (weight) is pushing the plane down, like the thrust=drag and lift=gravity (weight).
Resources (these helped alot): Dynamics of flight