A Thesis Submitted to the Department of Agriculture; by CAROLYN SANDRA BENTLEY; In Partial Fulfillment of the Bachelor’s Degree in Biochemistry, THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA; May 1999.


I would like to begin by thanking Dr. Irene Pepperberg for offering the class “Do Animals Think?” my freshman year. Not only was it a wonderful practicum for the critical eye required in scientific study, but it introduced me to the interesting work conducted in her lab. Through independent study with the infamous (and stubborn) Alex, cute Grif, and crazy Kyo, I met Diana May to whom I am very grateful for providing a working hypothesis to and the chance to accompany her on her second trip to Central Africa to study these “soil-eating Greys”. And, of course, without the…

By Carolyn S. Bentley for The University of Southern California’s Master’s Degree in Communications Management

Viral marketing, or electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) between peers that is initiated by an organization and spreads online at a rapid pace, is a relatively new and highly cost-efficient form of marketing (Jurvetson & Draper, 1998). Email newsletters are one avenue that can be effectively used to achieve exponential rates of sharing between consumers (Jurvetson & Draper, 1998).

Email newsletters can be an excellent permission-based marketing tool and/or source of income for businesses (Ellis-Chadwick & Doherty, 2012). When following good email etiquette, the individual receiving the newsletter has already given permission to send the marketing content to them, or opted-in, and…

Written for a class at The University of Arizona. Based on less official, side observations while studying Grey parrots foraging in Cameroon, Africa, summer 1997.

Figure 3. Illustrates the weekly distribution of Grey parrots at each located foraging site in Bolou savana, Lobéké Reserve of Southeastern Cameroon, West Central Africa.


Foraging animals experience a trade-off between food acquisition and predator avoidance behaviors. Flight from a predator is energetically costly and becomes more costly the greater the distance to a refuge. Therefore, the decision to flee must be efficiently weighed. Ydenberg and Dill (1986) developed a qualitative flight initiation distance model which predicts that the greater the distance to the refuge the sooner flight would be initiated. This suggests that an upper limit may be set on the distance from a refuge that an animal can forage. …

Debate Between Philosophers: A Materialist and a Dualist

hat if the majority of society arrived at the belief that we are all just machines with no free will and an extremely slim chance of some Higher Being watching over us? Would a moral code still remain? How would our legal system change? Would the world be thrown into chaos? How different would a human being really be from the potential computers of tomorrow? These are just a few of the questions that scientists and philosophers alike must ask themselves when inquiring into the mind and body relationship and the true nature of the mind.

The mind-body topics that…

Written as a group project for University of Southern California Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism’s Master’s degree program in Communications Management. The group included:

Amanda L. Anderson

Carolyn S. Bentley

James J. Proulx

Kimberly A. Whitney

Crisis situations are some of the most challenging times for organizations and for their stakeholders — an organization’s reputation, market share, or even its very existence can be put at risk from a crisis situation (Fearn-Banks, 2009). It is a key role for communications leaders in an organization to lead the effort to respond in the most appropriate fashion for the situation (Coombs, 2006). The failure to communicate properly in a crisis situation can allow a crisis to fester and worsen over time (Coombs, 2007), or it even can create a new crisis of its own (Williams-Treadaway, 1992).

With all…

Structural holes exist in social networks when there is a lack of a direct contact or tie between two or more entities (Burt, 1992). The theory of structural holes was developed to explain how to benefit from competition in social networks and their intersecting relationships (Burt, 1992). The theory can be applied to the relationships between individuals, organizations, or other entities, that occupy social networks (Burt, 1992; Ahuja, 2000). Structural holes theory is applied in social network analysis — how are different entities (e.g., individuals, organizations, corporations, groups, entrepreneurs, etc.) tied to each other? And how can one benefit from…

Sketch by Professor William Bickel, The University of Arizona

On Sunday, November 16, 1996, the Russian spacecraft, Mars ’96, was launched. It was funded over half of its $300 million budget by several countries other than Russia with the high hopes of landing four vehicles on Mars for exploration. Shortly after take-off, the booster rocket malfunctioned in its fourth stage preventing the unmanned craft to break out of the Earth’s orbit. It reentered the Earth’s atmosphere the same day above the southern Pacific Ocean and crashed into the sea west of South America. …

Carolyn Bentley

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