What are the Different Nephrological Conditions?

Kidneys are important for smooth functioning of human body. Several drugs and diseases like diabetes alter the fluid, electrolyte and acid regulation in the body. Kidneys help in maintaining the normal levels and also filter the blood of its waste products and excess water.

Nephrology is the medical science that deals with the treatment of kidney related disorders. And a physician who is accountable for treating kidney diseases is known as a nephrologist.

The following are a few of nephrological conditions:

Kidney stones: Kidney stone is a hard mineral material formed within the kidney or urinary tract. It is formed when there is a decrease in urine volume and excess of stone-forming substance. The major reason behind occurring of kidney stone is dehydration. It is said that one in every 20 people suffer from this condition, once in their lifetime.

Acute kidney injury: This is caused due to disturbances in the electrolyte and acid base regulation. This is a chronic condition and often result in loss of kidney functioning. People suffering from acute kidney injury are to be admitted and treated in a hospital setting.

Hypertension: Hypertension or high blood pressure is a condition that arises due to high force of blood flow, this results in stretching of blood vessels so that blood flows more easily. Stretching and weakening blood vessels causes’ severe damage to kidneys which is why kidney stops functioning smoothly, further worsening the human immune system.

Glomerular diseases: This disease is caused due to the inflammation of the membrane tissue in the kidney that serves as a filter, separating wastes and extra fluid from the blood or it is caused due the hardening of the tiny blood vessels within the kidney. Both of these conditions may result in complete failure of kidney functions.

Kidney failure: This is the end stage of any kidney related disorder, all the above conditions if not treated properly may result in kidney failure. In the occurrence of such a situation, nephrologists suggest on kidney transplants which mean replacing the organ. Only technologically advanced hospitals offer this facility of kidney transplants. There are a few best nephrologists in India that specialises in organ transplant programs.