Sorry for taking so long to respond. I just found this guide and it looks to have a lot of answers to questions you mentioned.
I am working on a CLJS tutorial for JS developers that I hope will make it easy to get started with CLJS in particular. Hopefully will have done this weekend.
I recommend Clojure for the Brave and True minus the second chapter on Emacs. The author makes the entire book available for free online:
Clojure's popularity continues to grow, with companies like Netflix using it to build everything from complex…www.braveclojure.com
If you’re interested in Clojure’s philosophy in general, Rich Hickey has several talks I’ve found insightful:
“Simple Made Easy”:
“The Value of Values”:
“Hammock Driven Development”
I really recommend watching the videos. I think they’re worth the time and finding a place to listen to audio.