Luck in online casinos is a thing which is if not relative, then at least not random.
The appearance of certain reel symbols on the reels, roulette numbers or cards depends on combinations which are generated by the so-called random number generator (RNG). It is a mathematical algorithm which simulates randomness. As a sequence of numerical combinations is calculated by the algorithm, its result cannot be accidental by definition. Therefore it is more correct to call it the pseudo random number generator .
In that case, how can we check casino fairness?
There are some ways which guarantee the honesty of game operators to players.
There are special outsourcing companies which licence casinos. They test casino equipment, including RNGs. Game operators who use the algorithm of pseudo-random numbers claim that saving the reputation and players’ trust is important for them, therefore it is unprofitable to cheat. The second argument in favor of such casinos is that the combination of numbers generated by the algorithm is practically impossible to anticipate.
Thousand-digit numbers or, for example, Pi, consisting of 5 trillion digits after the comma, are used as the starting point of the algorithm and the final number is generated by means of difficult sequences of mathematical actions. The algorithm generates a combination before the player presses the “Start” button and the reels or the roulette wheel start to move.
Checking the working principle of an RNG is possible only after examining an online casino’s server — this is what the companies that license casinos do.
It is clear to everybody that this scheme of checking online casinos cannot be considered completely reliable.
RNG on blockchain
One of the solutions for this problem is offered by blockchain casinos. The outcome is generated by means of an algorithm of random numbers based on the hash of blocks in a blockchain. On the one hand, it allows any network participant to see any given transaction and be convinced that the number has been generated fairly. But this method has a number of drawbacks.
- Firstly, the low speed of transactions and the limited throughput of a blockchain do not allow to make game process fast enough.
- Secondly, game turns become expensive due to the gas cost required to conduct every transaction while generating the result of every turn.
- Thirdly, as the RNG uses a block hash for calculation, big miners, possessing high computing power, can influence the outcome of transactions, generating blocks with the specific hash to ensure the appearance of advantageous combinations.
On the other hand, if the result is not determined by just one block’s hash, but for example, the hash of several consecutive blocks, then the chance of one miner affecting the outcome of transactions is reduced. In theory.
- Lastly, casinos on blockchain, too, use pseudoRNGs.
The mathematical algorithms, no matter how perfect they can be, are not capable to generate combinations of random numbers. The only thing that can be considered absolutely random are the events which occur in nature or, for example, in space. This principle lies at the basis of the random.org randomizer. The sequences of numbers are generated with the use of atmospheric noise. The service offers some paid generators:
- Integer Generator — generates random integers in the set range
- Sequence Generator — generates sequences of unique integers in the set range (it is used, for example, in card shuffling)
- String Generator — generates a random line of the set size with the possibility of choosing the type of signs (helps to generate a password)
This technology is used in the FairWin game platform. The RNG works not on a blockchain, but in the special FairChannel used to transfer the data of all game turns. This solution provides high game speed, allows to optimise the Ethereum network loading and lower the cost of game turns. That is, the player only makes two on-chain transactions — at the beginning and the end of the game.
We consider this solution of the RNG fairness problem in online casinos to be the most optimal at the moment.