No Child Left Behind
The act also included provisions to check the efficiency of improvement of the legislation itself. Title 5 of the act created the National Skills Standards Board to assess whether the “skills standards” are being fulfilled by public education on the state level. A number of education “skills standards” were established as a level of capability in different skills that students were expected to reach before high school graduation. The skills standards provision also appears to have more than purely educational goals behind it, because they know how can edubirdie pay for essays now. Part of those standards included skills “that will result in increased productivity, economic growth, and American economic competitiveness.” Now, somehow, we have got to get industry involved in telling the schools, ‘this is what we need,’ so that these students can become better as adult citizens,” said George H. Kaye, Vice President of Human Resources at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, who the Senate consulted on the needs of the education during a hearing on Goals 2000.
Goals 2000 didn’t only focus on mathematics, science and engineering education, but made efforts to create safer, drug-free school environments, strengthen student competency in English, foreign languages, arts, history and geography, improve adult literacy and raise the high school graduation rate to 90% by year 2000. 37 Although concerns for opportunity inequalities connected to race, gender, and class disparities, and a variety of directions taken to improve equity in U.S. education were featured, Goals 2000 also gave significant attention to interests relating to U.S. economic productivity and strength in global markets.
No Child Left Behind, 2001
“In an age now driven by the relentless necessity of scientific and technological advancement, the current preparation that students in the United States receive in mathematics and science is, in a word, unacceptable,” said House Representative Eddie Bernice Johnson in a hearing on the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) bill. “Proficiency in mathematics and technology is necessary to prepare American students for participation in the 21st century and to guarantee that the United States’ economy remains vibrant and competitive.” By the second year of the new millennium, the new administration as well as Congressional committees had expressed that Goals 2000 didn’t provide enough improvement in mathematics, science and engineering education in the United States. The Trends in Mathematics and Science Study indicated that mathematics and science education hadn’t been improved enough to raise the U.S. out of its “middle-of-the-pack position” within international student achievement in those fields, said Nick Smith, Chairman of the House Subcommittee on Research of the Committee on Science.
Efforts intended to improve U.S. science and mathematics education have failed to fulfill standards for student proficiency and failed to increase the number of postsecondary students attaining degrees and careers in mathematics, science, engineering or related fields, said Smith. According to Smith, the factors accounting for the “national failure” include lack of “challenging” curricula in textbooks, “inadequate teacher preparation” in those fields, lack of students attending advanced courses and lack of expertise on teaching in those fields. Aiming at the issue of “inadequate teacher preparation,” the NCLB authorized the National Science Foundation to use $273 million in 2001 for creating partnerships between K-12 and higher educational institutions aimed at improving teacher training programs in mathematics and science and developing “challenging” curricula for those fields. The bill intended to train and hire more mathematics and science teachers, fund more education research and provide more educational materials, as listed among the “targets for reform.”