something is racist if it overtly or covertly impedes members of a particular racial group*
Lessons from the American Election for non-Americans (and Americans too)
Alistair Bartonn

This definition has room to be refined. E.g. it may be worth impeding an advantaged group if it leads to helping less advantaged one. ‘Impede’ also brings up the debate on free will; there’s ways to get around this by asking if an otherwise identical people would have/take the same opportunities on average. These refinements and others are important, but not really relevant to my larger point.

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