Michael Allen’s E-Portfolio

1. Action Research Paper

Athletic Participation Benefits Beyond the Field and Court

EDUTL 5220, Foundation of Middle Childhood Teaching and Learning, Dr. Hea-Jin Lee

October 31st, 2016

Michael Allen


Throughout the four years I attended high school, I participated in and was apart of three athletic teams. The teammates I had, for the most part, seemed to be some of the smarter group of students in my classes as well. This could be the case seeing how my graduating class only had 63 kids in it and so a pretty big portion of them participated in athletics throughout their high school career. It still seemed a little weird because students who also participated in athletics seem to be labeled, at least societally, as less educated. My teammates seem to beg to differ with this label.

What I want to find out is that students who also participate in athletics during their high school years are actually some of the best students. I feel that athletics actually help students become more inclined to do better in classes. Athletics make people have to think quickly, make critical thinking decisions in the slightest of time, they teach you how to work with others using teamwork, and they teach discipline. My question is, are students participating in athletics achieving higher grades than nonparticipants?

I feel students who participate in sports have an obligation to do better in school because their eligibility to play something that is dependent on it. This is at least one reason to achieve good grades. The possibility to play a sport in college is also another reason. Even just wanting to go to a school that is known for their academics could be a reason and showing that you have other activities in your life shows that you can handle the pressures of multiple things. Athletics have so many benefits related to academics and those are just to name a few. This is why athletics help students achieve higher grades than nonparticipants.

Review of Literature

I reviewed six articles that examined if students who participated in athletics improved their academics. Basically, was there correlation between participating in athletics and improvement in academics. Rees and Sabia (2010) used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to provide evidence of athletic participation leads to enhanced academic performance. Rees and Sabia examined the effects of sports participation on academic measures (2010). Another study done by Barron, Ewing, and Waddell (2000) reviewed the effects of athletic participation on wages and academic attainment. They used older data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 to determine their outcomes. Lumpkin and Favor (2012) used data from the state of Kansas of students who participated in high school athletics and students who did not and the differences in academic measures such as GPAs, graduation rates, ACT scores, and state assessments. The only academic measure that was not in favor of students who participate in athletics was the ACT scores and those were mixed. Lipscomb’s 2005 study Secondary school extracurricular involvement and academic achievement reviewed athletic participation and its effects on math and science test scores as well as bachelor’s degree attainment expectations. This study also looked at academic attainment and wages and the effects athletic participation has on them just like the study done by Barron, Ewing, and Waddell mentioned earlier. I also reviewed a study done by Ryan Yeung in 2015 called Athletes, Athletic Leadership, and Academic Achievement. He examines if athletes perform better academically than non-athletes and if there is any benefit for being a leader on these teams. Lastly, Hwang, Feltz, Kietzmann, and Diemer (2016) Sport Involvement and Educational Outcomes of High School Students: A Longitudinal Study, reviewed athletic participation, peer support, significant other educational expectations, family involvement, athletic and academic identities and the relation they all have on educational attainment. This longitudinal study also measured the subjects 8 years out of high school. What these studies will determine is if athletic participation has positive effects on academics, educational attainment, and whether or not participating in athletics is more beneficial than not participating.


The methodology will be a little different than most research papers in that I do not have direct subjects to observe, question, or measure. What I have to do is look at the articles I reviewed and the methodology these studies used to determine their outcomes. While I would have liked to have participants, reviewing these studies was enough for me to obtain ample information to determine my own findings. There are certain things I was looking for when examining these literature pieces. 1) data from reputable studies, 2) data that covers athletes and nonathletes and how well they did academically in areas such as GPAs, graduation rates, ACT scores, and assessment tests, 3) Statistical analysis of this data and outcomes 4) if they suggest that participation in athletics is beneficial to academics or is it detrimental. The 6 studies I reviewed gave information in some, if not all, areas I was looking into. I feel the studies I reviewed dealt directly with data pertinent to what I am measuring; athletic participation motivates students academically.

Lumpkin and Favor (2012, p. 6) used different tests, analysis of variance, “to examine differences between performance of non-athletes and athletes on the five ACT measures.” They used data from “students who participated in high school sports during the 2008–2009 school year and academic data from the Kansas State Department of Education (KSDE).” (Lumpkin and Favor, p. 6). 139,349 students were enrolled in the academic calendar year of 2008–2009 in grades 9–12 in Kansas High schools (Lumpkin, p. 6). This data gave clear evidence of how many students participated in athletics, non-participants, and how well these students did academically and the comparisons between them.

The data Yeung used in this study came from the High School and Beyond Survey. “One of the best aspects of HSB is the wide range of examination data that is available. HSB tested students in five different subject areas: reading, two Mathematics exams, civics, science, and vocabulary.” (Yeung, 2015, p. 11). I feel this data is of significance because one it has a great quantity of participants involved, around 30,000 students. Secondly, tests these participants in 5 subject areas. Thirdly, the study has comparisons between nonathletes and athletes which are essential to the study I am doing.

In Sport Involvement and Educational Outcomes of High School Students: A Longitudinal Study by Hwang et al. used the data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey-88 which is “a large-scale survey of American high school students, from 1988 to 2000” (Hwang et al., 2016, p. 6). They used the data from the follow up survey all the way up to the participants were 8 years removed from high school. 12,144 was the total number of participants used for this survey (Hwang et al, 2016). This group felt there were inconsistencies between athletic participation and educational outcomes so they felt the need to seek other factors that determine educational outcomes (Hwang, 2016). I feel the data from this study may give insight to other factors of academic motivation that potentially would help the outcome of my study. I do think the longitudinal studies are more reliable when it comes to presenting information because it resurveys them when they are outside of school for a period of time.

Rees and Sabia stated in their methods “our primary focus is on the relationship between sports participation and grades as measured by a respondent’s GPA in math and English.” (2010, p. 3). As stated before, they used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine their study. “Specifically, we estimate the following equation: yi = 0 + 1Xii + 2Sports12i + 3Sports34i + 4Sports5i + εi, (2) where Yi is the outcome, Xi is a vector of controls,9 and εi is a random error term. A cross-section identification strategy of the form described in Eq. (2) has been most commonly used in the sports-academics literature.” (Rees and Sabia, 2010, p. 3) this is comparing students who participated in athletics to those who did not at all.

I covered 3 studies and their methodologies and like Hwang et al., Lipscomb also uses the National Educational Longitudinal Survey but uses it for different findings. Lipscomb addresses if extracurricular participation increases human capital but does it differently than other economic researchers (Lipscomb, 2007). Lipscomb looked at math and science scores and if they improved and whether or not this can be a determining factor in capital gains later in life through obtaining a bachelor’s degree.

Lastly, Barron et al. (2000) use two different studies, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. “First, we seek to develop a simple theoretical model for predicting relationships between high school athletic participation and educational and labor market outcomes. Second, we seek to provide empirical analysis across multiple data sets concerning the effects of athletic participation that includes controls that economists typically identify as important.” (Barron et al., 2000, p. 2). Like Lipscomb, this study is concerned with if educational attainment and wages are correlated to athletic participation and the model they created, a simple two-period model of time allocation, to determine this inquiry.


Does athletic participation lead to higher grades than nonparticipants? I asked this question because I felt athletic participation did lead to higher grades and my personal experience with athletic participation by myself and my teammates lead me to believe that this is a true statement. What reviewing these studies did was give me some insight as to whether the statement is true for the general consensus. Do I still believe this to be true? Yes, but the actual gap between athletes and nonathletes is not as significant as I once believed.

The good. First, Lipscomb informs us of his results “My results indicate that participating is associated with a 1.5 to 2 percent improvement in test scores and a 5 percent improvement in Bachelor’s degree attainment expectations” (2007, p. 10). Lipscomb makes it known that there is some correlation between athletic participation and improved academics. “On average, students participating in activities in twelfth grade improve their test performance. In contrast, students who do not participate earn lower scores” (Lipscomb, p. 7). The statement that athletic participation leads to higher academic success is definitely emphasized in these two quotes from Lipscomb. Another finding I came across “ In Kansas, participation in high school sports is definitely not detracting from academic performance. Kansas high school athletes in 2008–2009 earned higher grades, graduated at higher rates, were less likely to drop out of school, and scored higher on state assessments and some areas of the ACT than did non-athletes.” this coming from Lumpkin and Favor (2012, p. 18). Yes, it is only limited to the state of Kansas but I feel that this is still firm enough to be regarded as significant evidence for the participation in athletics compared to nonparticipation. Lumpkin and Favor even go on to say that athletic participation may even be more beneficial for ethnic minorities who come from urban backgrounds because of much less frequent drop outs, higher graduation rates and much higher GPAs than non-athletes (Lumpkin and Favor, 2012). Yeung (2015, p. 20) also believes that “participation in high school sports does appear to have beneficial effects on academic achievement, as measured by cognitive test scores.” These effects were definitely apparent in reading, science, and vocabulary (Yeung, p. 20). We can see from these results as well as other results from the other studies that athletic participation is something that can enhance academics compared to non-participation. It is even more evident for ethnic minorities.

There are some limitations to these studies unfortunately. The findings of Rees and Sabia (2010, p. 9) “suggest that previous reports of substantial positive academic spillovers associated with sports participation are overstated due to unmeasured heterogeneity and suggest that programs and policies designed to encourage sports participation are unlikely to produce important contemporaneous positive effects on student grades.” The only evidence they found of athletic participation having a spillover effect was the aspirations to attend college. In the findings from Hwang et al. they didn’t necessarily find that athletic participation have a negative effect on educational outcomes. Rather, they felt athletes found their academic identity through their athletic identity, thus creating positive impacts on their educational outcomes (Hwang et al., p. 19).

I find that athletic participation does not have a negative impact on educational outcomes of athletes. I feel students who do participate in athletics enhance certain characteristics in themselves such as time management skills, teamwork, individual performance, and social networks which are essential for educational outcomes like GPAs, graduation rates, academic aspirations, and state assessments to name a few. As an athlete, you have certain requirements in order to play athletics. For example, I know most schools have a certain GPA requirement in order to play on a team. Students learn through sports to give 100% of their effort. This is something that is also preached academically to these athletes. I think the aspect of belonging does not get enough credit in athletics. I feel that is part of the reason that minorities that come from the urban background have such academic achievement when they participate in athletics is because they are held accountable by peers and coaches. The social aspect of a team is crucial for them because there is a lack of reliability in their home life.

So do I believe that participants in athletics achieve higher grades than non-participants? I do, but I feel the impact of athletics is felt greater in other areas such as socially, aspirationally, characteristically, and financially rather than just achieving higher grades. The benefits of athletics go beyond the classroom.

Plan of Action

I feel when I am writing this plan of action, I am speaking directly to administration or the school board. As a coach and a future educator, we need to consider athletic participation beyond the field or the court. How we can do this is by looking at the benefits athletic participation presents to the student and teachers. Then I would present my findings of how athletes have higher academic aspirations than nonathletes. Present the articles that I have covered that show the evidence of athletes doing better than their counterparts. Not only would I present this information I would make it know that athletes create a social network in which they can gravitate in. This allows them to be able to associate with peers, coaches, teachers, and parents that will be most beneficial to them. Athletics gives them that social aspect of community or family that some athletes may not experience in their own home lives. Another aspect that I learned is that athletes tend to do better financially later in life. I would attribute this to the fact that athletes seem to have higher academic aspirations than nonathletes. Athletes tend to achieve higher wages which I also believe it to be that athletes tend to not drop out. If athletes want to participate in athletics, they have to stay eligible in order to do so.

I would encourage teachers, educators, administrators, school board members, etc to put more emphasis on the participation in athletics. These people have the ability to influence their students because they seem them on a daily basis. I would encourage them to read up on the benefits of athletics presented in these 6 studies.

The thing I learned most from this basically the last sentence from my findings that there are benefits of participating in athletics other than achieving higher grades. I look back at my time in sports and realize the benefits of athletics socially, aspirationally, characteristically, and financially. These things, along with my parents, my peers, and teachers really shaped my academic outlook and how important education is.


Barron, J. M., Ewing, B. T., & Waddell, G. R. (2000, 08). The Effects of High School Athletic Participation on Education and Labor Market Outcomes. Review of Economics and Statistics, 82(3), 409–421. doi:10.1162/003465300558902

Hwang, S., Feltz, D. L., Kietzmann, L. A., & Diemer, M. A. (2013, 12). Sport Involvement and Educational Outcomes of High School Students: A Longitudinal Study. Youth & Society, 48(6), 763–785. doi:10.1177/0044118x13513479

Lipscomb, S. (2007, 08). Secondary school extracurricular involvement and academic achievement: A fixed effects approach. Economics of Education Review, 26(4), 463–472. doi:10.1016/j.econedurev.2006.02.006

Lumpkin, A., & Favor, J. (2012) Comparing the academic performance of high school athletes and non-athletes in Kansas in 2008–2009. Journal of Sport Administration & Supervision 4(1), 41–62. Published online May, 2012.

Rees, D. I., & Sabia, J. J. (2010, 10). Sports participation and academic performance: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Economics of Education Review, 29(5), 751–759. doi:10.1016/j.econedurev.2010.04.008

Yeung, R. (2013, 07). Athletics, Athletic Leadership, and Academic Achievement. Education and Urban Society, 47(3), 361–387. doi:10.1177/0013124513495277

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2. Distinctive Day Lesson Plan

The Name and Date of Holiday: National Cheese Pizza Day, September 5th

Grade Level: 2nd (20 students) Learning Target: Being able to recognize and explain equal shares of a circle by identifying halves, thirds, fourths, etc.

Project overview: To have students use paper plates as pizzas, coloring them, and determine how many friends they are able to share their pizza with depending the shares they have.

Learning Statement: Students are going to determine how many shares they have for their pizza and how many friends they are going to be able to share the pizza with. Students will learn and recognize fractions and be able to reason with shapes when they are partitioned into two, three, or four equal shares. They will learn the vocabulary of halves, thirds, and fourths. Students will show what they have learned by project they create in the lesson as well as the take home worksheet that will further provide their understanding of the material discussed in the lesson. The project will also be displayed in the hallway to show the students learning of shapes and their attributes.

Common Core Standard: CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.G.A.3 Reason with shapes and their attributes. “Partition circles and rectangles into two, three, or four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, thirds, half of, a third of, etc., and describe the whole as two halves, three thirds, four fourths. Recognize that equal shares of identical wholes need not have the same shape.”

Key Academic Language: Recognition, Describing, Structure, Reason, Shapes, Equal Shares

Your Name, University & Semester: Michael Allen, The Ohio State University Lima, Autumn 2016

Information about holiday with URL listed:

“On September 5th, one of the most popular varieties of pizzas gets its day of honor. Hold the toppings, please. It’s National Cheese Pizza Day!”- http://www.nationaldaycalendar.com/national-cheese-pizza-day-september-5/

“In Italy there is a bill before Parliament to safeguard the traditional Italian pizza, specifying permissible ingredients and methods of processing (e.g., excluding frozen pizzas). Only pizzas which followed these guidelines could be called “traditional Italian pizzas”, at least in Italy.”- http://pizza.com/fun-facts

“Today is National Cheese Pizza Day! Did you know that Americans eat approximately 350 slices of pizza per second? Whether you prefer thin crust, deep dish, or regular style, today’s the day to celebrate one of the most popular meals in the country.”- https://www.punchbowl.com/holidays/national-cheese-pizza-day

Book Information: Secret Pizza Party, by Adam Rubin, Daniel Salmieri, The Penguin Group, 2013, 9780399539329

Project Steps Overview:

  1. Ask students if they like pizza. Then ask them what type of toppings they like on their pizza. May have to direct them by giving them toppings to think of or have students raise hands as I call out toppings. Toppings have no color, students will be coloring them in. Read the book
  2. After reading the book, break students up into groups of 4–5 based on the topping which they liked the most. Some groups may like the same topping but breaking groups up will also go into the learning of the content. Each group will be given a paper plate that they will then color in and use toppings to decorate pizza.
  3. As they are gluing the construction paper toppings to the pizza, ask each group how to break up pizza into equal shares depending on the amount of friends we need to share with (halves, thirds, fourths, etc). Give each group a number of friends and ask them to cut pizza into equal shares.
  4. Once all groups are accounted for, hang up their artwork and then go over the artwork as a class. They should be able to recognize and explain how many equal shares the pizzas have.
  5. Once we have recognized this for circles, inform students that we have a pizza that is a rectangle. Make a square pizza to allow visual of fractions and equal shares. Ask them to break up/divide pizza into equal shares of halves, thirds, fourths, etc.
  6. Hand out take home worksheet of fraction problems so students can show their work to their parents. Students will be able to understand and recognize fractions as well as shapes being cut into halves, thirds, fourths, etc.

Assessment Process/Tool: Going to each individual group and asking them to recognize and determine equal shares of a circle (pizza). So say they have one friend, they should be able to show how to partition the circle to be in halves. If they have 2 friends, should be able to determine it needs to be in equal thirds and what the physically looks like. Worksheet will be sent home with fraction problems to help further understanding and recognition of the material discussed in class and with the lesson. The assessment tool has number lines but will ask students not to do those problems. See attached page for example.


Art project supplies for class: 20 dinner paper plates, 20 scissors, pre-cut construction paper pizza toppings, 20 glue sticks, tape or staples to hang up artwork

Considerations for all students: For students who experience a physical disability, using the scissors to cut for them may be required or having adaptive scissors for the student to be able to use. Also, teacher may have pre-colored paper plates or precut “sauce” plate for them and then the teacher would glue toppings on for them. Supplies should be provided for students in low socioeconomic status. If students with LEP, try to accommodate for them by using the language they are most comfortable with by asking them if they want to use English or their first language. Have a translator if possible or have academic terms translated to better suit the student. For gifted mathematically gifted students, extend the lesson for them by having them adding pizzas together to make larger fractions. The other possibility is just to use larger equal shares and allow them to draw the correct equal shares for larger fractions.

Connections to student’s world and experiences:

They are able to determine what toppings they want on their pizzas. Also, maybe include history of where pizza first originated. Talk about how New York City is known as the pizza capital of the United States and introduce different types of pizza styles in different regions of the US.



612 North Main Street, Ada, OH 45810Ph: 567–204–7761 allen.1038@buckeyemail.osu.edu

Professional Summary

Seasoned State Tested Nurses Assistant with more than 3 years of experience in fast-paced health facilities. Excellent Judgement and Decision Making and interpersonal skills. Track record of achieving exceptional results in resident care and assisting nurses or doctors in daily duties.


Able to work with people and Experienced with meeting their needs quickly and judgement decisions in regards to effectively care of others. Actively listening and producing Strong work ethic and the ability positive outcomes when dealing to adapt to changing with higher authorities. environments.Prominent interpersonal relationships with coworkers,customers, clients, and management.


State Tested Nurses Assistant Mar 2014-Present

Hardin Hills Health Center — Kenton, OH

Provide residents with assistance moving in and out of beds, baths, wheelchairs, or automobiles and with dressing and grooming. Direct residents in simple prescribed exercises or in the use of braces or artificial limbs. Entertain, converse with or read aloud to residents to keep them mentally healthy and alert. Perform a variety of duties as requested by resident such as obtaining household supplies or running errands. Massage residents or apply preparations or treatments, such as liniment, alcohol rubs, or heat-lamp stimulation. Care for residents by changing bed linens, cleaning or assisting with their personal care. Maintain records of resident care, condition, progress, or problems to report and discuss observations with supervisor or case manager.

Patient Care Technician/Secretary Technician Jun 2012-Dec 2013Lima Memorial Health Systems — Lima, OH

Answer telephones and give information to callers, take messages or transfer calls to appropriate doctors, nurses, or specialists. Create, maintain, and enter information into databases. Operate office equipment, such as fax machines, copiers, or phone systems and arrange for repairs when equipment malfunctions. Greet visitors or callers and handle their inquiries or direct them to the appropriate persons according to their needs. Answer patient call signals, signal lights, bells, or intercom systems to determine patients’ needs. Provide physical support to assist patients to perform daily living activities, such as getting out of bed, bathing, dressing, using the toilet, standing, walking,or exercising. Review patients’ dietary restrictions, food allergies, and preferences to ensure patient receives appropriate diet. Measure and record food and liquid intake or urinary and fecal output, reporting changes to medical or nursing staff. Record vital signs, such as temperature, blood pressure, pulse, or respiration rate, as directed by medical or nursing staff. Document or otherwise report observations of patient behavior, complaints, or physical symptoms to nurses. Observe or examine patients to detect symptoms that may require medical attention, such as bruises, open wounds, or blood in urine.

Summer Maintenance May 2007-Aug 2011

Ada Exempted Village Schools — Ada, OH

Service, clean, or supply restrooms.

Gather and empty trash.

Clean building floors by sweeping, mopping, scrubbing, or vacuuming. Follow procedures for the use of chemical cleaners and power equipment to prevent damage to floors and fixtures. Remove snow from sidewalks, driveways, or parking areas, using snowplows, snow blowers, or snow shovels, or spread snow melting chemicals. Clean windows, glass partitions, or mirrors, using soapy water or other cleaners, sponges, or squeegees. Move heavy furniture, equipment, or supplies, either manually or by using hand trucks. Mow and trim lawns and shrubbery, using mowers and hand and power trimmers, and clear debris from grounds.

Package Handler Jul 2010-Jun 2011United Parcel Service — Columbus, OH

Maintain equipment storage areas to ensure that inventory is protected.

Read work orders or receive oral instructions to determine work assignments or material or equipment needs. Move packages to and from trucks using conveyor belts and other necessary equipment such as carts and hand carts.

Determine where packages go by matching correct postal code with corresponding freight trailer. Being able to physically handle packages above 70 pounds using proper mechanics.

Sales Associate Jun 2009-May 2010

Macy’s Inc. — Lima, OH

Answer customers’ questions about merchandise and advise customers on merchandise selection. Itemize and total customer merchandise selection at checkout counter, using cash register, and accept cash or charge card for purchases. Take inventory or examine merchandise to identify items to be reordered or replenished. Pack customer purchases in bags or cartons.

Stock shelves, racks, cases, bins, and tables with new or transferred merchandise. Stamp, attach, or change price tags on merchandise, referring to price list. Clean display cases, shelves, and aisles.

Design and set up advertising signs and displays of merchandise on shelves, counters, or tables to attract customers and promote sales.


Associate of Arts : Educational Studies May 2016The Ohio State University — Lima, OH

Expected to graduate August 2017 with a Bachelor’s of Arts in Educational Studies.


Michael Allen

Justin Hanf

Annotated Bibliography

EDUTL 5469

Beneke, M., & Cheatham, G. A. (2014, 04). Speaking Up for African American English: Equity and Inclusion in Early Childhood Settings. Early Childhood Education Journal Early Childhood Educ J, 43(2), 127–134.

This article delves into the important role that the African American English (AAE) plays in the classroom. There are many ways that teachers need to become informed on the subject of AAE and how to include this dialect as well as the students that speak it into the classroom. The author gives us four ideas teachers can and need to do in order to put this process into practice. These four concepts help teachers to understand the diversity and dialect of the language the student speaks as well as the family. Really investigating AAE and the ways in which this dialect is different, in a good way, than other dialects. Finally, ways in which we need to teach standard english in the classroom to students of the AAE dialect. Show them that code-switching is of use and how learning standard english will improve their reading and writing skills.

How I found this article was using the Ohio State Library, I typed in African American English in pop culture into EBSCOHost’s Academic Search Complete and marked the peer reviewed box.

Cutler, C. A. (1999, 11). Yorkville Crossing: White teens, hip hop and African American English. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 3(4), 428–442.

The author of this journal had various interactions, conversations and tape recordings with a friend’s son. Mike, the son, is from the wealthier part of NYC, but as he grew up he started to incorporate African American Vernacular English (AAVE) into his everyday speech. He also begins to dress, listen to music, and watch films which highlights black inner-city life. What the author highlights is the fact that this culture, black inner-city life with music, fashion, and language, has given white adolescents inspiration to adopt these norms. It isn’t this black community with all of it’s complexities that is dangerous, it is the people, like Mike for instance, trying to identify with a group of people that he systematically does not represent which can have troubling consequences. Which, even though it is an isolated incidence, we can see with Mike’s behavior as he goes onto college.

How I found this article was using the Ohio State Library, I typed in African American Vernacular English into EBSCOHost’s Academic Search Complete and marked the peer reviewed box.

Sánchez, D. M. (2010, 03). Hip-Hop and a Hybrid Text in a Postsecondary English Class. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 53(6), 478–487.

This article questions the negative view educators and people of academia have on African American Language (AAL). Instead of looking at the people who speak this language in a deficit view, view them in a profit image. The author goes into detail how she did this with one of her students, Robert, and his breakdown of a hip-hop song. Robert, who is black and someone who speaks the AAL, is able to dissect a song in ways which correlate with the academic standard that is set in place. We learn that he is in a remedial english class because he was misdiagnosed. AAL students are usually shed in a negative light. So when Robert is able to do these things, Sanchez questions the standards. Sanchez argues teachers need to look to modify the standards they use and how to propel the language and literacy practices of AAL into pedagogical practices.

How I found this article was using the Ohio State Library, I typed in African American English in pop culture into EBSCO Host’s Academic Search Complete and marked the peer reviewed box.

Bohn, A.P. (2003). Familiar Voices: Using Ebonics Communication Techniques in the Primary Classroom. URBAN EDUCATION. 38 (6), 688- 707.

This article looks into meaningful incorporation of Ebonics in the primary classroom. The article focuses mainly on one teacher in a primary school classroom in Oakland, California. It starts by giving four vignettes on what this teacher does in her diverse classroom. It goes on by saying how Ebonics came about in the United State and lists five educational techniques that are associated with Ebonics. These are tonal semantics, call-and-response exchanges, testifying, signification, and code switching. The article finds that the technique used by the one teacher was successful when two other teachers used it but, when a teacher tried to use it without any experience with African American culture she failed at incorporating that in her teachings.

To find this article I used the Ohio State University libraries and searched the Phrase “Ebonics in the classroom”.

Christensen, L. (2008). Welcoming All Languages. Educational Leadership. 66 (1), 59- 62.

This article focuses mainly on how teacher need to become more accepting of all of our students way of speaking. The article then talks about how we need to incorporate a lesson on Ebonics to help African American students in our classrooms. The article ends by saying that we need to be inclusive and accepting of our student’s home language and that Ebonics is never going to fade away.

To find this article I used the Ohio State University libraries and searched the term “Ebonics”.

Potential interview questions (at least 10) that your future interviewers might ask you during the interviews.

  1. What is your educational background? (Or I see you went to [insert school name here]. What was the most rewarding part of attending that university?)
  2. What are you currently reading for enjoyment?
    What do you want to be doing in five years?
  3. List five adjectives that describe yourself.
  4. What is one of your weaknesses, and how are you working to improve it?
  5. What interests do you pursue outside of the classroom?
  6. To what teams and/or clubs did you belong as a student?
  7. What activities might you coach or advise as a member of the teaching staff?
  8. When did you decide to become a teacher, and why did you choose this field?
  9. Why do you want to teach at the ____ level?
  10. What do you like best about working with kids? Least?
  11. Are you looking to pursue your teaching license?
  12. What are your past experiences working with kids? Have you been in a classroom, have you coached, have you worked at an after school program?
  13. What is your philosophy of education?

I am currently coaching 7th grade boys basketball at Ada and have also coached High School football in 2011 at Ada as well. Coaching is something that I would really want to get into. My father was the Head Coach of football at Ada back in the 1990’s and I was always at the practices when I was younger. He is someone who I look to when I need to ask questions that deals with education as he is a former teacher with over 25 years of experience. He is someone I can go to because he has dealt with many different situations with many different students and he has great insight to questions that I ask him. He is part of the reason I am in the educational major and I cannot thank him enough for his wisdom when it comes to students and players.

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